Monday, October 31, 2011
From Compagnie des Indes
Shipments trafficking campaigns are shipping a very long time, where the route is a constant concern.
In the history of the Atlantic, the main roads do not undergo little change.
They are only more or less borrowed, depending on periods and circumstances. Slave shipments show no specific major in the areas of navigation.
These are the same practices involved, and the same skills that are required.
The greatest originality probably lies in the coexistence of a Foreign Going Ship to most of the journey, and cabotage in the African side.
In addition to their experience and their ability to navigate by dead reckoning, the slave captains need to charts, which occur most often in the form of atlases and related compounds briefly a few leaves.
Whatever their nationality, criticism against the cartographers of Staff for errors especially in latitude, longitude, which complicate their roads, constantly recurring in the writings of sailors in their logbooks, vital source of details of these voyages.
Presented here is a selection of five atlas cartographers whose names appear frequently in the logs of the East India Company, demonstrating their use.
The choice in this case has focused on two Dutch atlases of the seventeenth century, when the Netherlands dominate the map, and two French atlases of the eighteenth century, which then take over.
These are actually three volumes, since the Petit Atlas Maritime Bellin, it is both the volume devoted to Africa (and Asia) and the volume on North America and Caribbean.
While many of the maps in the atlas have never been used on expeditions slave trade conducted by the East India Company, a consulting these volumes in their entirety has been privileged to provide an overview to Internet user.
The choice was also examined copies of the prestige of the Library of History of Defense, who received the utmost care in their implementation, which explains the excellent state in which they are still.
In addition, two copies of the atlas were completely Dutch watercolor, which gives them a certain character and a particularly remarkable clarity.
Pieter Goos and the ’Atlas of the sea' or Aquatic World
Pieter Goos (Amsterdam, 1616-1675) was a cartographer, engraver and publisher Dutch cartographer Abraham Goos's son, in the tradition of the great dynasties of the Dutch world of books.
It is revealed by publishing in 1650 Lichtende In Column Ofte Zee-Spiegel, nautical world atlas which will now be their specialty until his death.
His atlas are successful abroad, as shown in the English edition of 1670 by John Seller.
The same year that is published Atlas of the Sea World Aquatic or who takes over the charts Goos, changing the text inside the frontispiece, and adding a table of charts in French preliminary stage.
The Atlas of the Sea is not the atlas Goos for the most accurate representation of the African coast, which is limited by five charts.
There is a more detailed version of its maps the coast of Africa, the illustrated exemplary SHD to Vincennes under the symbol R 250, which has a dozen boards.
As in The Atlas of the Sea, they are always decorated with cartridges designed to evoke the picturesque continent.
In the form of a collection very roughly bound it gives a good idea of the material which had actually slave captains to help in their browser.
All of the maps of the copy of The Atlas of the Sea presented here were watercolor.
It was a specialty atlases published in the Netherlands, because it guaranteed them a unique character conducive to good sales.
But despite a supposed rejection of this practice as mentioned in several texts, the French elites do not actually disdained at all, and atlases of many old collections of the Library Department of Defense from historical collections great characters have also been fully color.
Les Van Keulen and the Torch of the Sea
Johannes Van Keulen (1654-1715) was the publisher of the most influential Dutch charts in river in the late seventeenth century.
Based in Amsterdam in the late 1670s, he obtained a patent in 1680 to print and publishing nautical atlases and road.
Giving his company the name of "In the Gekroonde Lootsman" (which can be translated into English by the Crowned Driver), he quickly agreed with the cartographer Claes Janszoon Vooght.
This agreement leads from the 1681 publication of the Nieuwe Zee-Lichtende Fakkel, an atlas consisting of six volumes representing all the seven seas.
This was the result of a compilation of intense conducted by Vooght, while the charts were richly illustrated by Jan Luyken.
The publication of volumes spread between 1681 and 1684.
His work was continued by his son Gerard Van Keulen, which regularly publishes revised editions of the atlas.
His grand-son Johannes Van Keulen II published in 1755 a new and final edition of all the volumes, significantly enriched in the Asian part.
This is the version that is presented here.
Although references to Van Keulen charts in the logs of the French East India Company are abundant especially during the first half of the eighteenth century, the 1755 edition of this has the advantage of being the only one present the full charts published under the seal of the dynasty Van Keulen.
The maps on the African coast are much more numerous than in the Atlas of Goos, which is why the rule maps it in shipments slave trade was quickly challenged by the publication of the Atlas Van Keulen, which will be the major reference for European navigators throughout the first half of the eighteenth century.
D’Après de Mannevillette and his Neptune Oriental
Jean-Baptiste-Nicolas-Denis d'Après de Mannevillette, born February 11, 1707 in Le Havre and died on 1 March 1780, is the most important French hydrographer of land of the eighteenth century to Beautemps-Beaupré.
He is the son of a captain of the East India Company, which took him to sail with him from the age of twelve.
Between 1719 and 1736, it does no less than five campaigns in India, China and the African coast, which the familiar early with the coasts of both continents.
In 1726, he began his first campaign as an officer of the Maréchal d'Estrees.
He quickly showed great qualities in terms of navigation, using the octant few years after its development by Hadley, and a passion for maps.
He undertook to correct existing maps and to produce new ones.
He is working on this project between 1735 and 1742, focusing on the coasts of Africa, India and China, allowing it to publish in 1745 the Neptune Oriental, receiving a warm welcome from European navigators, long frustrated by the secrecy maintained by the Portuguese map in these regions.
The success will be such that the atlas will receive a 1775 edition significantly renewed.
It is this that is presented.
He perfected his knowledge of the coastal command in 1749 when the 'Cheval Marin' on the coast of Guinea, in 1750 and the 'Glorieux', with whom he led to the Cape of Good Hope, the famous astronomer Abbé de La Caille.
Named captain of the vessels of the East India Company in 1753, he made a new campaign in China, and control in 1756 the Duke of Bourgogne in the fleet of the Comte d'Aché in India.
It seems that it is found to be less brilliant fighter than hydrographer.
Logical consequence of the recognition of his special skills, he was appointed in February 1762 Head of Filing of maps and plans of the East India Company in Lorient, a position he held until his death, even after the removal of the Company India.
His death was followed shortly by the recovery of deposit collections of Lorient by the Filing of maps and plans of the Navy.
The direction of the Deposit of Paris, although it has officially criticized the 1775 edition of the Neptune Oriental, is in fact well aware of what charts Mannevillette.
According to this part of the world are much better than the Map Depot Navy maintains or has produced.
The copy shown here belonged to the collections of the Depot of War who has never overlooked the fact sea during its long history.
In connection with certain transfers of collections made during recent years, it is now central to the historical library of the Navy.
Bellin and the small maritime Atlas : Asia, Africa / America, Caraibes
Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703-1772) is the embodiment par excellence of the cartographer of Staff.
It is likely, before the emergence of Beautemps-Beaupré at the end of the century, the leading figure of French hydrography of the eighteenth century, but has never yet made himself of field surveys.
He joined in 1721 at the Depot maps and plans of the Navy, one year after the creation of this institution.
He spent all his life, having found in the rich holdings (maps and logs) gathered in this place an ideal ground for his taste for compilation.
He draws constantly in the amount of information made available, which also earned him some trouble with sailors who consider themselves robbed of their work, for example from the Mannevillette, who does not hesitate to drop what about a complaint at the Academy of Sciences.
All this really does not affect Bellin, who is formally appointed hydrographer of the Navy in August 1741.
Tends to confuse some different activities, Bellin advantage of his position to develop a successful business map complements his work at the Depot.
This work is embodied in two formats and productions very different objectives: Hydrography French on the one hand, and Le Petit Atlas Maritime other.
While all of these volumes is for browsers, the first atlas is more in the tradition of the great Dutch atlas of the previous century, while the latter, with its many plans, is more akin to the tradition of the road Navigation.
This also explains his great success with sailors.
Le Petit Atlas Maritime consists of five volumes: one for North America and the Caribbean, the second South America, Africa and the third in Asia, Europe and the fourth, finally, the fifth is reserved to France.
The two volumes presented here are from the library of Maréchal de Castries, Secretary of State of the Navy from 1780 to 1787, whose works are well represented in the old collection of historic Central Library of the Navy.
Maréchal' weapons appear on the binding of two magnificent atlas, in red morocco with decorated "to the band."