Tuesday, June 23, 2015

5 maps that help explain the Arctic

From GISgeography

 National Geographic atlases from 1999 through 2014 shows how Arctic ice has melted over time.

North Pole Map
Many nations are using bathymetric data (which maps the seafloor) to claim parts of the Arctic Ocean, including the North Pole. Russia, Canada, and Denmark have all expressed an interest in claiming the area around the pole as an extension of their continental shelves.
Map by Bill Rankin, National Geographic 
 Arctic Maps – Exploring the New & Unknown

What first comes to mind when you think of the Arctic?
Ice? Polar bears? Climate change?
It wasn’t until very recently that we’ve gotten a clearer picture of the Arctic.
But just what are we mapping in the Arctic?
Geographic boundaries, climate change, ecology, geology, trading routes, oil exploration, the natural environment and even the research that is taking place in the north of 60°.
Maps are one of the most effective forms of communication ever developed.
They chart territory, they’re practical and communicate ideas.

1907 North Pole Regions Map

So that’s why this list of Arctic maps is the best place to begin learning about the Arctic.
If you want answers about the Arctic, look no further.
These visually-inspiring Arctic maps will show you the way.

1. ArkGIS – Mapping the Arctic Landscape

In Norwegian, ArkGIS stands for Arktisk Geografisk Informasjons System.
The World Wildlife Fund delivers a webmap to simplify the Arctic. Stakeholders, decision makers and general public get the whole picture with the ArkGIS – Mapping the Arctic Landscape Webmap.
From economic boundaries to human activity.. to the natural environment… ArkGIS puts together piece-by-piece each element with its Arctic maps.

  • Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ): Canada, Norway, Russia, Denmark (via Greenland), and the United States (via Alaska) are limited to their economic adjacent to their coasts. The waters beyond is considered international water.
Human Activity:
  • Shipping Routes: Shipping routes are observed using the satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS).
  • Oil and Gas: Exploration and production wells used to retrieve underground petroleum or oil.
Natural Environment:
  • Physical Oceanography: Bathymetry shows underwater depth of the ocean floor. The SRTM30 PLUS Grid with roughly 1 km grid resolution.
  • Sea Ice and Snow: Variables like sea ice and snow cover is an important variable for scientists to understand the pace of climate change.
  • Marine Mammals: Distribution and observations of marine animals are depicted for whales, seals, walruses and narwhals. It includes polar bear status and denning areas.
  • Seabirds: This includes waterfowl, seabird and shorebird species richness.
  • Fish: From Atlantic cod to Walleye Pollock, these layers show the probability of occurrence and observations for fish species.
2. ArMap: Arctic Research Mapping Application

Arctic research mapping
Have you ever wanted to tap into all the research in the Arctic?
Thousands of research projects are taking place in the Arctic.
This is why the Arctic Research Mapping Application was developed.
It supports Arctic science by displaying research projects, showing available data and exploring possible collaborations.
Projects range from biological, geological, meteorological to oceanography.
Arctic vegetation, glaciers, permafrost, terrestrial biomes and tree lines can be displayed.
The Arctic maps has ship tracks, medical facilities and arctic stations are available for reference.
Users can navigate to areas of interest and explore research projects by location, year, funding program, investigator, discipline, keywords, and other variables.

3. 1971 Arctic Ocean Floor

Early explorers thought the oceans were bottomless.
After the invention of the sonic depth finder, suddenly our view of the oceans changed.
They certainly weren’t bottomless… nor, were they flat.
The featureless ocean became dynamic with trenches, ridges and abyssal plains.
This Arctic Ocean Floor map first appeared in the October 1971 issue of National Geographic.
The detail is extraordinary of such submarine terrain as continental shelves, abyssal plains, ridges, and fracture zones.
Land masses and the ocean floor are illustrated in stunning relief in these Arctic maps.

4. Geologic Map of the Arctic

Canada’s Geo-mapping Frontiers project was initiated to improve geoscience knowledge in Canada’s north. Natural Resources Canada’s Geologic Map of the Arctic displays geologic structures of Canada’s Arctic north of 60°.
This Arctic map was compiled using simple photogeologic principles and visual interpretation from a variety of free data sources.
The data sets included enhanced magnetic data, LANDSAT imagery and topographic (DEM) data.

5. The Arctic Risk Map

The Arctic Risk Map is filled with base data from a variety of sources.
It offers meteorology, ocean, biological, wildlife, search and rescue, geographical and activity as map data.
But where these Arctic maps excel are in their environmental and safety indexes.

Environment Vulnerability Index: A location and season specific index for environmental vulnerability of marine resources with respect to oil spill as external stressor.
The vulnerability assessment was performed for the different ecological uses in about 100 areas of heightened ecological significance within the 17 Arctic Large Marine Ecosystems.

The Safety and Operability Index (SOI): The SOI is based on risk influencing factors such as sea ice, visibility, temperature, distance from search and rescue, etc.
It gives an aggregated score for each Arctic region for safety and operability factors in these regions.
Values are compared with the benchmark chosen by Norwegian Sea.
The Arctic is in flux for who is claiming what..
The US, Russia, Canada, Norway and Danish are all staking their territory.
But no one can tap the Arctic until all countries come to an agreement.
Mineral extraction, natural gas, as well as potential shortcuts for shipping routes – the Arctic may be one of the last great frontiers for human development.
NASA has some models forecasting ice-free summers in the Arctic Ocean.
Disappearing sea ice jeopardizes mammal populations like polar bears.
Polar bears have less time to hunt because of the early breakup of sea ice.
The result is a shrinking polar bear population.
Seals, walruses and seabirds have shorter periods for nesting and feeding.
Whether its human activity or the natural environment, these 5 Arctic maps help you truly understand the great North.

Redrawing the map

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