Tuesday, October 27, 2020

Surveillance tech helped INTERPOL crack down on marine pollution crime

INTERPOL launched “Operation 30 Days at Sea” in cooperation with Europol to address the marine pollution violations and geospatial technologies were at the forefront of this operation.
 From GW Prime
This case study is based on a Report originally published by INTERPOL, Reference:2019/405/OEC/ILM/ENS/BNI.

Marine pollution is a serious threat to environmental health.

It also leads to transnational organized crime, with offenders disposing of pollutants in the sea to save cost on waste treatment.
In order to address the complex nature of this crime, law enforcement agencies have to come up with a comprehensive response that is internationally coordinated.
To foster such a response, INTERPOL’s Pollution Crime Working Group (PCWG) launched “Operation 30 Days at Sea” in cooperation with Europol in 2018.
Geospatial technologies such as satellite imagery, aerial surveillance systems, vessel tracking systems and mobile applications were at the forefront of the operation.

Scope: Targeting marine pollution offences globally

The operation aimed at bringing together relevant national enforcement and environmental protection agencies to act in concert against marine pollution, by targeting the following activities:
  • Illegal discharge from vessels and offshore platforms
  • Ocean dumping; ship breaking
  • Violations of ship emission regulations
  • Land-based and river pollution impacting the marine environment

Objective: Enhancing marine pollution enforcement

The overall objective of the Operation was to enhance the global law enforcement response to marine pollution in violation of international conventions and national legislations, to improve sea quality.
The Operation involved supporting investigations to identify, arrest and prosecute individuals and/or companies responsible for marine pollution through:
Intelligence gathering and international cooperation;
Collecting and analyzing geospatial data to profile risk indicators, modus operandi and hotspots, with a view to enhance early detection of violations and develop long-term law enforcement strategies.
Operational activities

As many as 58 countries joined the “Operation 30 Days at Sea”, mobilizing 276 national agencies (Figure 1).
Each participating country defined its own targets and operational activities based on its national priorities and technological capabilities.

Figure 1. Map and list of participating countries in the Operation

Intelligence-led operational targets

In majority of participating countries, target identification resulted from intelligence gathering through screening vessels and companies of interest based on records of non-compliance.

Variety of sources were used, including national compliance targeting matrix for marine traffic and related lists of ships of interest; and databases of the regional MoUs on Port State Control.
Some countries coupled historical data with intelligence collected during the Operation through vessel traffic management information systems, National Aerial Surveillance Program over flights, and satellite monitoring.

  • Thailand conducted a multi-target operation deploying onshore and offshore assets to inspect ports, coastal areas and territorial waters.
  • Four intelligence principles guided target selection: probability, information sharing, intelligence gathering and statistical leads.
  • Portugal selected its operational targets through an intelligence gathering and analysis cycle as part of an integrated management approach at strategic, tactical and operational levels.
  • Argentina conducted operational actions including intelligence gathering, satellite monitoring, and aerial surveillance, on board inspections, vessel tracking and sea patrolling coordinated by a maritime traffic system that was operational 24/7.
  • In Germany, authorities performed 313 inspections, 28 air surveillance flights, 27 AIS investigations and analyzed over 40 satellite pictures.
  • As a result, they detected 165 marine pollution offenses and initiated 37 investigations on water pollution crime and illegal shipments from Europe.
  • The total security deposits exceeded EUR 63,000 (USD71, 000).
  • Angola deployed several navy units with maritime and aerial assets, under the Command and Coordination Centre in Luanda.
Geospatial technologies deployed
The Operation saw an extensive use of both traditional surveillance vehicles and equipment, such as aerial surveillance and sea patrols, and innovative technologies and techniques applied to marine pollution detection.
Innovative techniques and technologies deployed by countries during the Operation included:
  • Satellite imagery;
  • Advanced aerial surveillance technologies: drones, including technologies such as sulphur sensors and mapping software; aircrafts equipped with side looking airborne radar (SLAR), electro optical infrared camera system (EO/IR) and infrared and ultraviolet line scanner (IR/UV);
  • Vessel tracking systems, including automatic identification systems (AIS) and various software and mobile applications;
  • Various IT equipment such as facial capturing systems, fingerprints scanning systems, night vision cameras, XRF scanners, X-ray scanners and special equipment for oil spills;
  • The Operation marked the first integration of EMSA’s (European Maritime Safety Agency) CleanSeaNet and SafeSeaNet satellite systems into an INTERPOL operation, benefiting endeavors in several countries through satellite imagery, including in Denmark, Germany, Portugal and the United Kingdom.
  • Indonesia focused its operation on oil spill monitoring using satellite sensors, namely ESA Sentinel Image, Lapan Landsat Image, SeonSE BARATA-BROL KKP application, and Bakamla’s Dashboard application.
  • 218 radar images were received, processed and analyzed in near real time at INDESO station.
  • Sweden mapped mineral-oil pollution incidents through satellite imagery.
  • In the Republic of Korea, the use of AIS supporting 552 inspections allowed detection of 49 violations, including 11 cases of discharge of noxious liquid substances resulting from tank washing.
  • In Pakistan, satellite imagery was instrumental to identifying the vessel responsible for a large oil spillage detected during the Operation, with over 40 metric tons of bunker oil dumped in the sea.
  • In Kenya, the use of Sea Vision technology and TV32 was instrumental to identifying vessels of interest by providing real-time traffic information in areas around suspicious maritime events.
  • The technology also assisted the operation team to prioritize vessels for inspections.
  • Transport Canada deployed its National Aerial Surveillance Program conducting 20 night flights to detect pollution incidents.
  • Aircraft were equipped with night vision cameras, Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR), Electro-optical Infrared Cameras (EO/IR) and Infrared/Ultraviolet Line Scanners (IR/UV).
  • In several countries, including Finland, Greece, Ireland, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom, operational tactics encompassed aerial surveillance.
  • For example, France’s POLMAR helicopters and aircrafts conducted 187.6 hours of surveillance flights.
  • In Norway, the use of drones with Sulphur detectors found the noncompliance of vessels with regulations against air pollution from ships.
  • Vessels tracking systems, including automatic identification system (AIS), software and applications, were used in Angola to monitor vessels positions and itineraries, and detect risk indicators.

Key achievements

15,446 Inspections were conducted worldwide which resulted in the detection of 1,507 marine pollution-related offences (Figure 2) and 701 investigations initiated with subsequent fines and prosecutions in numerous cases.
Cases reported by national authorities to INTERPOL allowed to identify 202 vessels and 76 companies involved in marine-pollution offences.

Figure 2. Map of the key results of the Operation
  • The 1,507 marine pollution related offences detected on land, in internal waters or at sea area portion of the over 2,000 violations uncovered during the operation, including hundreds of minor violations and deficiencies and cases related to other types of offences, such as fishery crime, drug trafficking and violations of safety regulations, which were detected during multipurpose inspections.
  • The immediate impact of this Operation was the effective containment of sea contamination following a large number of incidents and violations in every regions of the world, along with the disruption of some illicit businesses with subsequent arrests and prosecutions.
  • While in some countries use of drones, satellite imagery, etc. were incorporated routinely in marine pollution enforcement, in other nations, the Operation triggered their use. For example, Nigeria experienced the unprecedented use of drones for port inspections for the first time. Flyovers of the ports were conducted with orthomosaic photogrammetry for mapping purposes, as well as to observe shipping movements and identify potential pollution events. This initiative marked an important step forward in Nigeria’s capacity to detect marine pollution crimes.

Strategic and long-terms impacts

The impact of this Operation and the application of geospatial technologies was particularly important in a number of African, Asian and Pacific countries, where marine pollution is still a very new and neglected area of law enforcement.
In these countries, the development of technical capacities to address challenges, and advocacy at the policy level to increase prioritization of marine pollution enforcement was encouraged.
The Operation generated actionable intelligence from the analysis of the operational results, to drive future targeted intelligence-led marine pollution operations.

Monday, October 26, 2020

England’s Sea-Kit leads rivals in race to map Earth’s seabed

The Maxlimer on its return from the Atlantic.
Photographer: Rich Edwards, Enp Media
From Bloomberg by Amy Thomson

A comprehensive atlas would help find minerals needed for electric cars and mobile phones.

On July 24 a 40-foot-long boat called Maxlimer set out from the port of Plymouth on the southern coast of England, steering southwest out of the English Channel into the open ocean.
The unmanned vessel, guided by pilots at a computer onshore, carries sonar that sends out an average of 10,000 sound pulses per hour to chart the topography of the ocean floor.
The goal of the boat’s three-week journey was to put together for the first time a detailed map of about 600 square miles of Europe’s continental shelf, the place where the ocean floor plunges from a few hundred feet beneath the surface to several thousand.

As the Maxlimer’s sonar pings bounced off the seabed, scientists around the world took turns listening for alarms indicating gales, approaching ships, or problems with the vessel’s sensors.
The Maxlimer, whose bullet-shaped hull looks like a submarine that’s just surfaced, had never spent this long a time in such a harsh environment, and researchers fretted a storm might hobble it, says Neil Tinmouth, 37, chief operating officer of Sea-Kit International Ltd., the company that builds the £1.3 million ($1.7 million) boats.
“We wanted to push the limits,” he says, “to do operations in open oceans where you don’t know what you’re going to encounter.”

Sea-Kit is at the forefront of accelerating efforts to map the ocean floor, a terrain that’s less understood than the surfaces of the moon or Mars.
Only 20% of the seabed has been mapped, and an atlas would boost efforts to find everything from minerals used in electric cars and mobile phones to new species.
The Seabed 2030 project worked with Sea-Kit on the voyage, getting data for its mission to map the ocean floor in the next decade and ultimately make the data freely available.
The initiative comes as the United Nations’ International Seabed Authority drafts a framework to allow deep-ocean mining, which may come into effect next year.

The Remote Operations Centre at Sea-Kit’s base in Tollesbury, England.
The Sea-Kit team is remotely controlling and monitoring the Maxlimer at sea.
Photographer: Rich Edwards, Enp Media

The ISA is grappling with how to fairly distribute wealth from international waters and protect the poorly understood ecosystems of the deep ocean.
“The law of the sea was written on the idea that if you use something that belongs to everybody, it’s equally shared,” says Marzia Rovere, a marine geologist at the Institute of Marine Sciences in Bologna, Italy, who’s been working on the UN framework.
“How to do this—it’s still a matter of debate.”

For centuries, sailors have sought to measure the ocean’s depth as a way to gauge the approaching shore and gain a better understanding of the topography.
Until the early 20th century, the technology was simple: a weight and a long rope.
The Challenger expedition in the 1870s used such sounding lines for a four-year trip that sought to map the seabed and catalog creatures in various parts of the ocean; it discovered the Mariana Trench, home to what’s now called the Challenger Deep, at more than 35,000 feet the deepest known part of the ocean.
After the Titanic sank in 1912, explorers proposed using sound waves to find its hull in the North Atlantic, accelerating the development of sonar, the most common technique used today.

Using the Sea-Kit Maxlimer, GEBCO-NF, a 14-nation team let by Rochelle Wigley and Yulia Zarayskaya, last year won the Ocean Discovery XPrize, netting $4 million in the competition aimed at nurturing technologies for mapping the seabed.
Other groups submitted ideas such as deploying multiple robots to map an area quickly, dropping retrievable pods from drones, and using lasers to determine the shape of the terrain.
The XPrize judges said a key differentiator for Sea-Kit was the way it tapped cloud technology to process data and create a detailed map in a tight, 48-hour window.

Corporations are also starting to study the ocean’s depths.
Ocean Infinity, based in Austin, does surveys for the oil industry with robots that can map terrain 20,000 feet below the surface.
International Business Machines Corp. is working with marine researcher Promare to build the Mayflower Autonomous Ship, which next year will attempt an Atlantic crossing guided by artificial intelligence.
Fugro NV, a Dutch company that also serves energy producers, has been developing similar mapping technologies—and this year it bought two of Sea-Kit’s boats and invested in the company.

Teledyne Caris and researchers this summer analyzed the 1.5 billion data points the Maxlimer gathered.
Schools of fish, temperature changes, and the drop-off of an underwater canyon can muddy the information coming back from the sonar; until recently, sorting through those anomalies to build an accurate map took an hour of computer time for every hour spent collecting data.
AI has cut that to less than 10 minutes.

Those are the kinds of advances needed to reach the goal of mapping the entire ocean, says Jyotika Virmani, who was executive director of the XPrize.
With that information in hand—and available to the public, as envisioned by Seabed 2030—scientists will better understand, say, where a tsunami might hit, how much sea levels might rise because of climate change, and potential shifts in ocean currents as temperatures climb.
“It works to everyone’s advantage to get this information out,” says Virmani, who now runs the Schmidt Ocean Institute, established by former Google head Eric Schmidt.
“Once we know what’s there in its entirety, we can really truly start to figure out what’s what on this planet.”
Links :

Sunday, October 25, 2020

22nd October 1884: International Meridian Conference in Washington D.C. the Greenwich prime meridian

At the start of the 19th century there was no universally agreed point from which to measure longitude, and this caused problems both for identifying geographical locations and measuring time.
Although latitude was able to be measured from the equator, variations in geographical longitude meant that different towns and cities had slightly differing time standards since the vast majority of settlements around the world observed local mean solar time.
The arrival of the railways in the mid-19th century increased the need for a standardised time across the network, since local time would differ in all the towns the train visited.
In Great Britain, Greenwich Mean Time was first adopted by the Great Western Railway and in 1870 Charles F. Dowd proposed a unified time system for North America based on the Washington Meridian.
Following further developments by Sandford Fleming and Cleveland Abbe, who proposed time zones for the entire world, U.S. President Chester Arthur requested a conference to discuss the choice of ‘a meridian to be employed as a common zero of longitude and standard of time reckoning throughout the world’.
41 delegates from 26 nations travelled to Washington, D.C. where the International Meridian Conference began on 1 October 1884.
Three weeks later, on 22 October, they adopted a series of resolutions that resulted in the Greenwich Meridian becoming the international standard for zero degrees longitude, ensuring continuity with most existing nautical charts.
Nevertheless the resolution was not accepted unanimously since San Domingo voted against, and both France and Brazil abstained.
Links :

Saturday, October 24, 2020

Why measure wind?

Learn how Earth’s wind is generated and why we need to measure it.
Discover how ESA’s Aeolus satellite will use laser technology to measure these invisible streams of air to help understand our climate and to improve our weather forecasts.

Friday, October 23, 2020

COVID-inspired adventure takes amateur sailors from Sunshine Coast to Great Keppel on 'floating deckchair'

After battling challenging conditions at sea for six days, the pair finally arrived at Great Keppel Island.(Supplied: Mike Swaine)

From ABC by Kylie Bartholomew

Holed up during COVID-19 restrictions in Queensland, amid an endless cycle of "wake up, check the phone, work, eat, sleep, repeat", Mike Swaine hatched a plan to escape.

The Sunshine Coast adventurer and his mate Joel decided to bunnyhop their way 300 nautical miles up the Queensland coastline from the Sunshine Coast to Great Keppel Island on a 17-foot Hobie Cat.

"I probably wouldn't have done it if COVID-19 hadn't hit," Mr Swaine said.

Over six days the two men were at the mercy of Mother Nature — at times nearly capsizing in brutal, 30-knot gusts with fully sheeted sails to zero wind and a dead motor in the dark.

"And you know, out in this little floating deckchair, that far out at sea is pretty sketchy," Mr Swaine said.

Powered primarily by wind, with no quarters below deck, riding on a Hobie Cat means feeling every wave and movement of the ocean.

The small catamaran was a somewhat unusual choice of vessel for such a long, multi-day journey, but with international and interstate travel off the cards, Mr Swaine wanted to find a new way to explore his home state.

"We're so lucky up here in Queensland that we still have a freedom in so many ways," he said.

"And we took advantage of that and our little catamaran got us to see our beautiful coastline."

An escape from lockdown

Swaine (L) with mate Joel Schulz, says the vessel's name, 'Betsy — the Ruby Princess', was a tribute to his grandmother — and the pandemic.(Supplied: Mike Swaine)

Mr Swaine is an aerial photographer by trade but when the pandemic hit, his interstate travel was ground to a halt.

Seeking an escape, he embarked on lengthy YouTube binge sessions — watching marine adventurers from around the world.

It was in those binge sessions that the idea for his own Hobie Cat adventure was born.

Travel restrictions as a result of COVID-19 left aerial photographer Mike Swaine with more time to ponder other types of adventures.(Supplied: Mike Swaine)

Experienced on the water, but not a sailor, Mr Swaine put plans in motion to sail the 17-foot Hobie Cat from south-east to central Queensland.

His mate Joel Schulz, aka the 'Coastal Cowboy', needed no convincing to be his right-hand man.

'Betsy the Ruby Princess'

 A map charting the pair's 300-nautical-mile adventure.
(Supplied: Google)
Visualization with the GeoGarage platform (AHS nautical raster chart)
The amateurs equipped themselves with sailing information via YouTube videos and gathered the necessary safety equipment.

"We didn't take that lightly and we didn't take having to get rescue services lightly," Mr Swaine said.
"We had three EPIRBs [Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons] and we had radios and we had contingency plans in place."

With the bare essentials on board, they set sail on 'Betsy, the Ruby Princess' — named out of "respect" of the pandemic.

Joel Schulz, the 'Coastal Cowboy', was excited to go along for the ride.(Supplied: Mike Swaine)

Stuck in the dark to frolicking dolphins

They hoped for idyllic conditions but at times feared for their lives.

"There was, at one point, a Big Woody Island and in between Fraser Island and Hervey Bay when the boat turned into the wind [30 knot gusts] and the waves started coming over, we had no methodology of power and we had to try and jibe the boat," Mr Swaine said.
"We couldn't pull the jib out to turn the boat around because the wind was so strong, but as soon as we turn beam onto the wind, the boat would capsize.
"That was a point where there's a split second you're like, 'Man this is actually really serious, we have to take this seriously, we have to respect the ocean'."

The pair faced challenging conditions along the way.(Supplied: Mike Swaine)

As they headed north, the wind not only eased but stopped completely as they approached Bustard Head at dusk.

Mr Swaine said it was a "scary experience", exacerbated when Mr Schulz accidentally dropping the anchor overboard — without a line attached.
"So we're like, 'OK', we had a little two-horsepower motor, we fired up the motor, and then the motor went for a while — then the motor stops," Mr Swaine said.
"There's some rocky shoals where the waves are breaking, it was biggish surf by that stage, it'd dropped a little bit.
"But it was very uncomfortable and floating around in this little boat in the dark, it was a scary experience."

But then there was the flip side — being able to pull into any beach, seeing the moon and sun rise each day and the joy of watching dolphins and whales dance around the boat.

Swaine says pulling up to any beach for the night was a highlight of the trip.(Supplied: Mike Swaine)

"We had a whole heap of dolphins come up and start jumping around the boat," Mr Swaine said.
"One came right up next to the boat and was just looking at us.
"It was inquisitive, trying to trying to figure out what what these two idiots are doing, not quite the middle of the ocean but, a long way out at sea on a little Hobie Cat."

A 'magical place'

Mr Swaine said staying calm — with a sense of humour — enabled the pair to make good decisions and arrive at their destination safely.

"We came on the inside of Great Keppel and all of a sudden the wind stopped, the swell stopped and it was just this magical place," he said.

Mike Swaine says if it wasn't for COVID-19, his Queensland coastal adventure wouldn't have happened.

"We pulled up and this guy came down and he's like, 'Oh, where are you from?' and we said 'the Sunshine Coast' and he just thought we're all having a joke.
"He was really surprised. I think we were equally surprised that we actually made it."

Mr Swaine said that the expedition took its toll.
"[It was] hard on the body, I have blistered lips and hands, constant fear in your mind — particularly on a stretch with land barely visible but [it was] totally, absolutely worth it," he said.

After capturing most of the Australian coastline from the air, Swaine wanted to explore on the ground.(Supplied: Mike Swaine)

Mr Swaine said after capturing the coastline from the air for nearly 20 years, being able to experience it at ground level lived up to his expectation.

"People would travel all over the world to go to beautiful places," Mr Swaine said.
"We live in the most beautiful place in the world whether it's on the Sunny Coast or whether it's the entire coast — COVID-19 has given us an opportunity to explore our coastline."

Links : 

Thursday, October 22, 2020

Cat and mouse on the high seas: on the trail of China's vast squid fleet

Vessels from the Chinese fishing fleet use bright lights to lure squid to the surface of the Pacific Ocean. Photograph: Jorge de la Quintana

From BBC Dan Collyns on the Pacific Ocean

Huge foreign fleets gather 400 miles off South America’s Pacific coast attracted by giant squid.
Peru’s coastguard must defend its territorial waters amid rising tension

The ocean is as black as chipped obsidian, yet whichever way you look dozens of bright lights illuminate the water and the night sky.
Nearly 400 nautical miles from the South American mainland, the crew of a Peruvian coastguard ship count more than 30 Chinese squid boats lighting up the sea like a city at night.

Some of the boats shine luminous green, others glow blinding white like an alien spacecraft in a movie.
Rigged along each side of the ships, incandescent lamps attract giant squid near the surface, where they can be hauled from the ocean by long metal arms jutting over the water.

The coastguard cutter Río Cañete drifts within 100 metres of a squid jigger, and the men on each boat gaze at each other across the water.
The Chinese fishermen work in silence; the crew of the Peruvian boat is also hushed – none of them has witnessed such a scene before.

The Peruvian coastguard commander Eduardo Atkins. 
Photograph: Jorge de la Quintana

“This is just part of a considerable fleet off our coastal waters,” says Commander Eduardo Atkins, looking out from the bridge of the 55-metre patrol boat.

“They’ve always been off our coasts, from Ecuador to Argentina, [but ] this time there’s been more media attention and the public feel affected.
Our job is to dissuade them from entering our maritime domain.”

The Guardian recently joined the Peruvian coastguard on a four-day patrol into international waters which came amid growing tension over the presence of the huge Chinese fleet off the coast of South America – some of the richest fishing grounds in the world.
More than 250 Chinese ships were first detected in July as they skirted territorial waters off the Galápagos Islands, stirring outrage in Ecuador and raising global concern about the practices of the world’s largest distant-water fishing fleet.

Hawkeye 360, a radio frequency data analytics firm, reported that boats were “going dark” by switching off their AIS satellite tracking and entering the islands’ exclusive economic zone.

“We found multiple examples of maritime radio frequency activity that is within the Galápagos exclusive economic zone adjacent to the Chinese fleet,” said HawkEye 360’s CEO, John Serafini.
“These signals don’t align with any AIS tracking. Although the activity could represent legitimate vessels, at the very least it is suspicious behaviour,” he said.

The hunt for Han Feng 806

Earlier that day, the Río Cañete heaved and shuddered through the machine-grey waves as a coastguard officer read out ships’ names from the radar scanner.

Commander Atkins steered the cutter south-west directly towards the cluster of Chinese vessels.
“We can clearly see the name of the ship Hangong Yu 303,” he said into a radiotelephone, reading out its coordinates on the ship’s bridge.

Then it came into view: the Hangong Yu 303 was a large red oil tanker, and it was refueling a smaller squid jigger, pipes connecting the two across the waves.
Atkins dispatched coastguard officers in one of the cutter’s two RIBs (rigid inflatable boat) to get a closer look, but the fishing boat quickly disconnected from the tanker and headed off in the other direction.

The Chinese ships regularly refuel on the open ocean in order to extend their voyage as long as possible, said Atkins.
“It’s not illegal but it’s considered bad practice,” he added through his white Covid face mask.
“They can be here for months and months, possibly changing their crews, but the boats remain here in the South Pacific.”

After more than 30 years with the coastguard, he could not hide his unease at the scale of the Chinese presence in the South Pacific, which has grown by roughly four times in nine years, according to Global Fishing Watch.

“They have factory boats which process the catch and the product arrives packaged and ready to eat in China,” he said.

It was one of these mother ships that Atkins wanted to find.
He could see Han Feng 806, a refrigerated container ship, or reefer, on the radar to the south-west but as he turned the cutter to give chase, the factory ship steered a course further out to sea.

Han Feng 806 stayed just out of reach.
The following day, Atkins changed course, steering east and then north, along the the 200-nautical mile limit of Peruvian waters.
The cutter’s twin 800 horsepower engines powered it smoothly along with the Humboldt current which swells up from Antarctica bringing nutrient-rich cold water along the coasts of Chile and Peru.

Fishing armada

The current gives its name to the species of giant squid which flourishes in its waters.

But there is genuine concern among local fishing associations that China’s harvesting of the Humboldt squid will inevitably hurt Peru’s fishery exports, of which the squid accounts for 43%.

“It’s an open secret that every year vessels mainly from China … come just at the edge of the 200-mile mark off Peru to extract this resource,” said Cayetana Aljovín, president of Peru’s National Fishing Society.

While South American countries impose quotas on their Humboldt squid catches, there are no limits on vessels in international waters.
About 800,000 tonnes of the fast-growing, highly migratory species are caught annually.

Overfishing of the squid could have an impact across the eastern Pacific, said Gustavo Sánchez, a marine biologist studying the species with Japan’s Hiroshima University.

“These squid might have more than a single genetic population cohabiting in the eastern Pacific waters, implying that overexploitation in international waters does not only mean fewer squid for Peru but also squid less resilient to environmental change over a more extended region,” he said.
The Rosario
There was nothing on the horizon as the coastguard cutter surged forward under an overcast sky.
Petrels and shearwaters skimmed the swell and occasionally flying fish launched themselves before the bow.

A sperm whale spouted and then breached just two hundred metres from the ship, lifting spirits among the crew.
“It’s a good omen, boys,” Atkins pronounced.

Hours passed uneventfully before an officer with binoculars spotted something on the starboard bow.
Nearly 100 nautical miles from land a little white fishing boat bobbed on the ocean, so small it barely registered on the radar.
Atkins set a course towards it.

A mechanical arm lowered the eight-man RIB off the stern and armed coastguards climbed down to it from a rope ladder, ready to inspect the suspect craft.

The eight-metre Rosario had been drifting for two days with a broken outboard motor.
All that its four-man crew – two seasoned Peruvian fishermen and two younger Venezuelans – had left was a large bunch of bananas, a bag of buns and some bottles of Gatorade.

But what shocked the coastguard officers was the Rosario’s catch: hidden in nets stowed on the deck were four dead common dolphins, including one infant, and six sharks.
Coastguard officials inspect illegal catch onboard the Rosario. 
Photograph: Dan Collyns
Among the catch were dolphins and sharks. 
Photograph: Dan Collyns

Despite the mask over his face, it was clear that the skipper, Juan Ramos, knew he had been caught red-handed.
Catching dolphins and selling their meat is illegal in Peru, but butchered porpoises are used as shark bait or sold as a delicacy known as muchame or chancho del mar on the black market.

“Unfortunately we caught a few dolphins but that was not my intention,” Ramos, 52, said.
“If the motor was in good condition I would have got them out [of the net],” he insisted.
But the coastguards doubted his story: someone had cut the tail fins from two of the dolphins to stop them breaking out of the net.

Junior officer Nicolás Castro asked Ramos for his permits and port departure documents, but he had none.
Despite their predicament, Ramos, an old sea dog, said if they hoisted a sail they would be back in Ancón, their port of departure, in 12 days.

The skipper of the Rosario, Juan Ramos.
Photograph: Jorge de la Quintana
“Before, years ago, we fished there by the shore.

Now look where we are! If we fished by the shore now we wouldn’t catch anything,” he said.
“This all comes from bad globalization.
It’s not just the Chinese squid fishing boats, there are tuna fishing boats from other countries too, they come and break our nets.”

He said small-scale fishermen could not compete.
“The big problem in Peru is we don’t have the technology.
But [the foreign fleets] have factory ships, they can get anywhere and catch tonnes and tonnes [of fish] and take it away, processed.”

Matt Bjerregaard, a specialist in marine biodiversity and fisheries, said climate change is forcing artisanal fishermen to follow the fish into deeper water, further from shore.
Chinese fleet vessels illuminate sea near Galápagos to attract squid to the surface

But large foreign fishing fleets are also to blame, he said, forcing fishermen “to search for new fishing areas, take longer to find their catch and, in turn, this has a negative impact on their livelihoods”.

Despite the seizure, the boat’s net was still cast – and some 50 metres away a sea lion struggled to free itself.
Castro jumped on to the RIB clasping a kitchen knife and motored towards the stricken animal which thrashed wildly, entangling itself more.

“Come on, come on, you’ll be free soon,” said Castro, leaning over the bow to cut the green mesh as the sea lion bit furiously at a yellow float.
Castro struggled for 20 minutes until finally the net could be hauled over the animal’s head and it disappeared with a splash.
Footage shows Chinese fleet vessels transferring cargo in seas near Galápagos

“Go, go, be free, be free!” shouted Castro, brimming with emotion and trembling from the physical effort.
“How beautiful, damn it! I’m thrilled I was able to free it.”

It was an emotional end to the encounter.

The fishermen and their illegal catch were taken back to the Río Cañete to be taken to the harbour master’s office in port and probably fined; their catch would be examined by experts from the fishing ministry.
The Rosario and its broken motor was left adrift on the ocean.

Meanwhile, the controversial Chinese fleet continued to move south, prompting Chile to announce that its navy would monitor its movements.

“What began as an arrest for an illegal act became a search and rescue operation,” said Atkins – pleased the mission had a satisfactory ending, but perhaps frustrated that he had to be content with the small fry while the big fish got away.

 Links : 

Wednesday, October 21, 2020

Cuba (GeoCuba) layer update in the GeoGarage platform

38 nautical raster charts updated

IXblue unveils The Cetos Suite, an AI Based E-Navigation solution

CETOS e-positioning is using INS, echosounder, cameras and/or radar to provide accurate GNSS-free positioning in littoral environment.

From NavalNews by Yannick Smaldore

To enhance navigation awareness and crews short-time decision-making, iXblue has developed an advanced e-navigation solution relying on artificial intelligence.
Through sensors redundancy and the augmented reality display of all key navigation information (routes, shallow waters, buoys, AIS…), Cetos Suite ensures a resilient and safe navigation.

During Euronaval 2020, iXblue unveils for the first time its complete CETOS Suite.
Partly presented in 2018, the Cetos Suite provides enhancing resilient positioning and navigation awareness.
For coastal and littoral operations, Cetos Suite allows a safe navigation, even during intense GNSS spoofing activities.
Using AI and augmented reality, Cetos also offers a unique way to sail in a complex environment.

Recently tested by the French Navy, Cetos Suite is an advanced artificial intelligence-based navigation solution that provides naval forces with full navigational awareness, helping crews short-time decision-making and ensuring safe navigation.

Cetos e-positioning can accommodate up to 8 cameras and 2 radars alongside INS and echosounder that provide a 15-20m accuracy in GNSS-denied environment

By reducing the navigational pool of error through the merging of sensors data (GNSS, INS/AHRS, radar, echosounders, cameras…), and by alerting crews members of GNSS spoofing and jamming, Cetos e-positioning brings more robust navigation to naval platforms in all environments.
Enhanced navigational awareness is also enabled thanks Cetos e-vision and its augmented reality display of all key navigation information (routes, shallow waters, buoys, AIS…) in a scene that recreates the surrounding environment.

Cetos e-positioning: sensors redundancy solution

The Cetos e-positioning is a multi-sensor positioning solution.
Connected to a wide range of sensors such as radars, cameras, echosounder, GNSS and inertial navigation systems, it improves navigation resilience within GNSS-denied environments through sensors redundancy.
  • Acquires data from all available external sensors (INS/ AHRs, echosounders, cameras, radars…)
  • Compares them with digital elevation models and computes resilient GNSS-free position (up to 10m accuracy)
  • Displays consolidated position into WECDIS for enhanced navigation awareness
  • Alerts on GNSS spoo ng/jamming by detecting discrepancies between sensor data and GNSS position
 Cetos e-positioning add-on brings more robust positioning to naval platforms by making the most of all navigation sensors available (radar, lidar, bathymetric maps…).
By correlating complementary navigation information, the e-positioning add-on is able to reduce the navigational pool of error and provides resilient and accurate positioning to the platform in all environments, including GNNS-denied ones.
This add-on brings safer navigation to naval operations.

Resilient positioning in all conditions :
  • Robust positioning even in GNSS denied or spoofed environments
  • Enhanced INS performance using multiple sensors information
  • Estimated position from all sensors displayed into iXblue WECDIS
Intuitive representation of the environment :
  • Augmented reality representation of key navigation information
  • Advanced detection of surrounding vessel through artificial intelligence
  • WECDIS system pairing for user objects display in 3D scene
Cetos e-vision: augmented reality display of key navigation information

Cetos e-vision is an augmented reality navigation system to improve situational awareness and dangers identification, enhanced with artificial intelligence for a more efficient watch.
Augmented reality system can display AIS and radar tracks, current route of navigation and potential threats.

The Cetos e-vision provides a synthetized and intuitive representation of the surrounding environment.
While connected to the bridge, it improves nautical situation awareness for a better and safer navigation.
  • Immediate and comprehensive understanding of full nautical situation
  • Provides optimum navigation conditions with high quality and full dimension rugged marine screens
  • Panoramic video representation of routes, nearest ships, danger areas, buoys
  • Custom objects representation (routes, marks, areas, AIS, radar targets,…) available within iXblue ECDIS

A new tool for safer navigation

Instead of showing the data received from ARPA, ECDIS charts and other tools in separate interfaces, the augmented reality system offers the possibility to understand the nautical situation in only a few seconds.

Through the Cetos e-vision, iXblue proposes an advanced augmented reality system displayed on dedicated screens.

Essential objects such as surrounding ships, areas of danger and the ship route are displayed in a 3D scene over a panoramic video, leading to a clear and synthetized representation of the environment.
A.I. to the service of the sailors

The latest algorithms in artificial intelligence are used to bring more accurate intel to the crew and ensure a more efficient watch.
e-vision is connected to the bridge system to detect threats such as small boats or ships without AIS.
Links :

Tuesday, October 20, 2020

Jules Verne’s most famous books were part of a 54-volume masterpiece, featuring 4,000 illustrations: see them online

From Open Culture

Not many readers of the 21st century seek out the work of popular writers of the 19th century, but when they do, they often seek out the work of Jules Verne.
Journey to the Center of the Earth, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, Around the World in Eighty Days: fair to say that we all know the titles of these fantastical French tales from the 1860s and 70s, and more than a few of us have actually read them.
But how many of us know that they all belong to a single series, the 54-volume Voyages Extraordinaires, that Verne published from 1863 until the end of his life? Verne described the project's goal to an interviewer thus: "to conclude in story form my whole survey of the world’s surface and the heavens."

Verne intended to educate, but at the same time to entertain and even artistically impress: "My object has been to depict the earth, and not the earth alone, but the universe," he said.
"And I have tried at the same time to realize a very high ideal of beauty of style." This he accomplished with great success in a time and place without even what we would now consider a fully literate public.

As philosopher Marc Soriano writes of the 1860s when Verne began publishing, "The drive for literacy in France has been underway since the Guizot Law of 1833, but there is still much to do.
Any well-advised editor must aid his readers who have not yet achieved a good reading proficiency."

Hence the need for illustrations: beautiful illustrations, scientifically and narratively faithful illustrations, and above all a great many illustrations: over 4,000 of them, by the count of Arthur B.
Evans in his essay on the series' artists, "an average of 60+ illustrations per novel, one for every 6-8 pages of text." Still today, "most modern French reprints of the Voyages Extraordinaires continue to feature their original illustrations — recapturing the 'feel' of Verne’s socio-historical milieu and evoking that sense of faraway exoticism and futuristic awe which the original readers once experienced from these texts.
And yet, to date, the bulk of Vernian criticism has virtually ignored the crucial role played by these illustrations in Verne’s oeuvre."

Evans identifies four different types of illustrations in the series: "renderings of the protagonists of the story — e.g., portraits like the one of Impey Barbicane in De la terre à la lune"; "panoramic and postcard-like" views of the "exotic locales, unusual sights, and flora and fauna which the heroes encounter during their journey, like the one from Vingt mille lieues sous les mers depicting divers walking on the ocean floor"; "documentational" illustrations like "the map of the Polar regions (hand-drawn by Verne himself) for his 1864 novel Les Voyages et aventures du capitaine Hatteras"; and portayals of "a specific moment of action in the narrative—e.g., the one from Voyage au centre de la terre where Prof.
Lidenbrock, Axel, and Hans are suddenly caught in a lightning storm on a subterranean ocean."

Verne and his editor Pierre-Jules Hetzel commissioned these illustrations from no fewer than eight artists, a group including Edouard Riou, Alphonse de Neuville, Emile-Antoine Bayard (previously featured here on Open Culture), and Léon Benett — all well-known artists in late 19th-century France, and made even more so by their work in the Voyages Extraordinaires.
You can browse a complete gallery of the series' original illustrations here, and if you like, enrich the experience with this extensive essay by Terry Harpold on "reading" these images in context.

Together with the stories themselves, on the back of which Verne remains the most translated science-fiction author of all time, they allow Harpold to make the credible claim that "the textual-graphic domain constituted by these objects is unmatched in its breadth and variety; no other corpus associated with a single author is comparable."

Human knowledge of the universe has widened and deepened since Verne's day, but for sheer intellectual and adventurous wonder about what that universe might contain, has any writer, from any era or land, outdone him since?

Monday, October 19, 2020

Humans threaten the Antarctic Peninsula’s fragile ecosystem. A marine protected area is long overdue

We urge the group to protect the region, because delays could be disastrous. 
Why we must establish a marine protected area around the peninsula, right now. 
Video: LUMA.

From The Conversation by Marissa Parrott, Carlyn Hogg, Cassandra Brooks, Justine Shaw & Melissa Cristina Marquez 

Antarctica, the world’s last true wilderness, has been protected by an international treaty for the last 60 years.

But the same isn’t true for most of the ocean surrounding it.

Just 5% of the Southern Ocean is protected, leaving biodiversity hotspots exposed to threats from human activity.
The Western Antarctic Peninsula, the northernmost part of the continent and one of its most biodiverse regions, is particularly vulnerable.
It faces the cumulative threats of commercial krill fishing, tourism, research infrastructure expansion and climate change.

In an article published in Nature today, we join more than 280 women in STEMM(science, technology, engineering, maths and medicine) from the global leadership initiative Homeward Bound to call for the immediate protection of the peninsula’s marine environment, through the designation of a marine protected area.

Our call comes ahead of a meeting, due in the next fortnight, of the international group responsible for establishing marine protected areas in the Southern Ocean.

Threats on the peninsula 

The Southern Ocean plays a vital role in global food availability and security, regulates the planet’s climate and drives global ocean currents.

Ice covering the continent stores 70% of the earth’s freshwater.

Climate change threatens to unravel the Southern Ocean ecosystem as species superbly adapted to the cold struggle to adapt to warmer temperatures.
The impacts of climate change are especially insidious on the Western Antarctic Peninsula, one of the fastest-warming places on Earth.
In February, temperatures reached a record high: a balmy 20.75℃.

The peninsula is also the most-visited part of Antarctica, thanks to its easy access, dramatic beauty, awe-inspiring wildlife and rich marine ecosystems.
Tourist numbers have doubled in the past decade, increasing the risk of introducing invasive species that hitch a ride on the toursts’ gear.
More than 74,000 cruise ship passengers visited last year, up from 33,000 in the 2009-10 season.
The peninsula is the most visited region in Antarctica.
The expansion of infrastructure to accommodate scientists and research, such as buildings, roads, fuel storage and runways, can also pose a threat, as it displaces local Antarctic biodiversity.

Eighteen nations have science facilities on the Antarctic Peninsula, the highest concentration of research stations anywhere on the continent.
There are 19 permanent and 30 seasonal research bases there.

Another big threat to biodiversity in the peninsula is the commercial fishing of Antarctic krill, a small, shrimp-like crustacean which is the cornerstone of life in this region.

A cornerstone of life

Krill is a foundation of the food chain in Antarctica, with whales, fish, squid, seals and Adélie and gentoo penguins all feeding on it.

But as sea ice cover diminishes, more industrial fishing vessels can encroach on penguin, seal and whale foraging grounds, effectively acting as a competing super-predator for krill.

In the past 30 years, colonies of Adélie and Chinstrap penguins on the Antarctic Peninsula have declined by more than 50% due to reduced sea ice and krill harvesting.
Commercial Antarctic krill fishing is largely for omega-3 dietary supplements and fish-meal.
The fishery in the waters of the Western Antarctic Peninsula is the largest in the Southern Ocean.
Krill is a vital part of the food web in Antarctica.

The krill catch here has more than tripled from 88,800 tonnes in 2000 to almost 400,000 tonnes in 2019 — the third-largest krill catch in history and a volume not seen since the 1980s.

 How do we save it?

To save the Antarctic Peninsula, one of critical steps is to protect its waters and its source of life: those tiny, but crucially important, Antarctic krill.

This can be done by establishing a marine protected area (MPA) in the region, which would limit or prohibit human activities such as commercial fishing.

An MPA around the peninsula was first proposed in 2018, covering 670,000 square kilometres.
But the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (the organisation responsible for establishing MPAs in the Southern Ocean) has yet to reach agreement on it.

The proposed MPA is an excellent example of balancing environmental protection with commercial interests.


Nature 586: 496-499 22 October 2020, Author provided

The area would be split into two zones.
The first is a general protection zone covering 60% of the MPA, designed to protect different habitats and key wildlife and mitigate specific ecosystem threats from fishing.

The second is a krill fishery zone, allowing for a precautionary management approach to commercial fishing and keeping some fishing areas open for access.

The proposed MPA would stand for 70 years, with a review every decade so zones can be adjusted to preserve ecosystems.

No more disastrous delays

The commission is made up of 25 countries and the European Union. In its upcoming meeting, the proposed MPA will once again be considered.
Two other important MPA proposals are also on the table in the East Antarctic and Weddell Sea.


A map of the current and proposed marine protected areas under consideration. Cassandra Brooks, Author provided

In fact, for eight consecutive years, the proposal for a marine park in Eastern Antarctica has failed. Delays like this are potentially disastrous for the fragile ecosystem.

Protecting the peninsula is the most pressing priority due to rising threats, but the commission should adopt all three to fulfil their 2002 commitment to establishing an MPA network in Antarctica.

If all three were established, then more than 3.2 million square kilometres of the Southern Ocean would be protected, giving biodiversity a fighting chance against the compounding threats of human activity in the region.

Links :

Sunday, October 18, 2020

The surprising thing I learned sailing solo around the world | Dame Ellen MacArthur

How sailing inspired global change towards a circular economy
What do you learn when you sail around the world on your own?
When solo sailor Ellen MacArthur circled the globe – carrying everything she needed with her – she came back with new insight into the way the world works, as a place of interlocking cycles and finite resources, where the decisions we make today affect what's left for tomorrow.
She proposes a bold new way to see the world's economic systems: not as linear, but as circular, where everything comes around.

 Links :

Saturday, October 17, 2020

CMES Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service viewer

Using information from both satellite and in-situ observations, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) provides state-of-the-art analyses and forecasts daily, which offer the capability to observe, understand and anticipate marine environment events. CMEMS is brought to you by Mercator Océan International.
The CMEMS Viewer (My Ocean) allows you to explore most of the CMEMS catalogue online with multi-projection maps as well as graphs vs. time, elevation and/or distance. 
Links :

Friday, October 16, 2020

Argentina doubles in size, or so it claims

From The Economist

The government takes advantage of a UN ruling to extend the country’s territorial waters

Argentina’s president, Alberto Fernández, has plenty to worry about: a soaring covid-19 caseload and a depressed economy.
So it must have been delightful for the government to change the subject on September 21st by issuing a map showing that the country’s territory is nearly double its former size.
It illustrates the effect of a law Mr Fernández signed in August, which expands Argentina by 1.7m square km (650,000 square miles), an area three times the size of metropolitan France.
Argentina now bestrides South America and Antarctica, from the Tropic of Capricorn to the South Pole.
Its territory includes some of the world’s richest fishing grounds and possibly oil and gas.
The Falkland islands, which Argentines call the Malvinas, lie within it.

This is not entirely based on fantasy.
In 2016 the un’s Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (clcs) issued a ruling, based on the un Convention on the Law of the Sea, that fixes the edge of the vast shelf that juts out from Argentina’s coast.
There the seabed is shallow enough—less than 2,500 metres deep—to count as an extension of Argentina’s mainland.
The effect of the ruling is to extend Argentina’s territorial waters beyond the normal 200 nautical miles (370km).

Mauricio Macri, Argentina’s then-president, a conservative, celebrated the ruling in 2016 as a diplomatic victory but did not write it into law.
His priority was friendly relations with the rest of the world, including Britain.
In 1982 Britain fought a war to expel Argentina’s armed forces, which had invaded the Falklands that year.

Mr Fernández, a left-leaning Peronist, is more assertive.
The law he signed in August, and the borders on his map, take in far more than the area to which clcssaid Argentina was entitled.
In sending the territorial-expansion bill to Congress this year, Mr Fernández insisted on “Argentina’s claim to the Malvinas”, which has long been part of its law and is endorsed by nearly all Argentines.
Argentina EEZ in the GeoGarage platform

The new official map shows South Georgia and the South Sandwich islands (also British), as part of Argentina, too, and adds areas that had it not claimed in law before.
The British are mainly interested in the water’s riches, Argentina’s government thinks.
That explains the “stubbornness of British colonialism”, suggested Daniel Filmus, the government’s secretary for the Malvinas, Antarctica and South Atlantic.
The map asserts Argentine sovereignty over the Antarctic peninsula, an ice-cream cone poking into the Weddell sea, which is also claimed by Chile and Britain.
In fact, the un commission avoided taking a position “in a case where a land or maritime dispute exists”.
The areas it awarded Argentina are a fraction of the country’s claim.

Argentina does not plan to try to reconquer the islands, but it does hope to use its interpretation of the commission’s ruling to press Britain to negotiate.
“The un is saying that the Malvinas is a matter of dispute,” contends an adviser to the president.
“The British always try to say there is no dispute over the islands.” Argentina’s foreign ministry put out a video calling for “dialogue” under un auspices.
Britain is unlikely to agree.

So Mr Fernández may have to be content with smaller satisfactions.
Argentine oceanographers are now in demand from other countries.
They are being consulted by specialists from Brazil, Germany, Denmark and even Chile, despite the peninsular dispute.
Schoolchildren will be taught that Tierra del Fuego, Argentina’s southernmost province, is now the country’s centre.
The country’s population of emperor penguins and leopard seals has greatly expanded.
In tough times, that may cheer Argentines up a bit.
Links :

Thursday, October 15, 2020

For sale: Shipwrecked whisky that spent decades underwater

The full auction lot includes original bricks from the ship and a diving helmet.
From AtlasObscura by Matthew Taub

In February 1941, a British cargo ship known as SS Politician was grounded and wrecked on a submerged sandbar off the coast of Eriskay, one of the islands in Scotland’s Outer Hebrides.

On board were trade goods ranging from cotton to biscuits, en route to would-be customers in Jamaica and New Orleans.
If, however, there was a marquee item among the ship’s inventory, it was surely the whisky—264,000 bottles of it.
Eriskay with the GeoGarage platform (UKHO nautical chart)

There was so much whisky on board that—following an initial rush among locals to rescue what they could from the foundering ship—freeloaders would still be recovering bottles nearly half a century later, even after the ship’s hull was blown up and sunk to discourage more salvage (that is, looting).
Some washed up on local beaches, and others were brought up by divers.

One of the latter, found by professional diver George Currie in 1987, is now up for sale at Scotland’s Grand Whisky Auction, where bidding will close on August 10, 2020.
At press time, the bottle was already going for nearly $8,000.
Though the auction house warns unequivocally that the “bottle is not suitable for human consumption,” the winning bidder will also be treated to a diving helmet and bricks from the ship itself.
Divers, including George Currie (bottom left), pose with lucky finds in 1987.

When SS Politician ran ashore it was wartime, rationing was in effect, and resources were scarce.
It’s not hard to imagine, then, how excited locals were to descend upon the wreckage and retrieve as many bottles as they could—“by any means necessary,” explains Beau Wallace, director of the Grand Whisky Auction.
According to a historical account in Scotch Whisky magazine, some men wore their wives’ clothing as they scavenged, so as not to stain their own with telltale spilled fuel.
Others reportedly traveled from as far away as the isle of Lewis, over 100 miles to the north, to get in on the action.

Less enthused were British authorities, who had not only lost a vessel but also the revenues (and duties) from the cargo on board.
Seeking restitution, they sent officers into villages to locate some of the missing goods, and some individuals were penalized.
A comic, fictionalized version of the events serves as the basis of Compton Mackenzie’s 1947 novel Whisky Galore, which was also made into a popular movie in 1949, and again in 2016.
The bottle currently on sale, says Wallace, represents “such a unique piece of history,”—or, at the very least, a unique piece of spirits history.
“Every Scotch drinker knows about Whisky Galore,” he says.

The SS Politician foundered off the coast of Eriskay, in the Outer Hebrides.

The story didn’t end, of course, with the hull’s destruction, or with the cinematic makeover.
There’s surely still some cargo floating around the Hebrides, and another diver had found eight bottles of his own, also in 1987.
(A pair of those sold for more than £12,000 in 2013.)
Currie never expected to discover his bottle.
It was just “a lucky dive,” he says—all the luckier considering that the blasting of the ship was intended “to smash all the bottles.”

The salvage operation — and the government’s response to it — inspired a book and several films.
This bottle—and, indeed, this spirit—represents just one aspect of the legacy of SS Politician.
For years following the wreck, there were reports of water-damaged banknotes—10-shilling Jamaican bills held in the same area of the ship as the whisky—turning up ashore and changing hands in banks.

According to Scotch Whisky magazine, some 290,000 of these notes were on board before the wreck, worth more than $9 million today.
After the notes showed up in Liverpool, London, and even the United States (among other places), the government announced in 1958 that 211,267 of them had been accounted for.
That leaves tens of thousands that, for all we know, are still just drifting about.
Links :