Sunday, August 19, 2018

Forecasting future hurricanes

Saturday, August 18, 2018

An English map of the Kingdom of France is represented under the form of a ship.

Relief shown pictorially. - Also shows administrative divisions (departments). 
Text, calendar, and map names in English. Index of departments in French. 
Title from first sentence of text at lower left. 
"Published as the act directs, June 28th 1796, by the author, no. 49 Great Portland Street." 
Paris meridian. 
Watermark: 1794 J. Whatman.
Library of Congress

Friday, August 17, 2018

‘They be pirates’ : An old scourge is reappearing in the Caribbean

These fisherman are on the lookout for pirates Fishermen in Trinidad and Tobago fish close to shore or risk becoming easy prey for pirates taking advantage of the instability in nearby Venezuela. 
(Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post)

From WashingtonPost by Anthony Faiola | Photo and video by Jahi Chikwendiu

CEDROS, Trinidad and Tobago —
In the flickers of sunlight off the cobalt blue of the Caribbean sea, the vessel appeared as a cut on the horizon.
It sailed closer.
But the crew of the Asheena took no heed.
“We be lookin’ for our red fish as normal, thinkin’ they be fishin’, too,” said Jimmy Lalla, 36, part of the crew that had dropped lines in Trinidadian waters last April a few miles off the lawless Venezuelan coast.

The other vessel kept approaching.
“They be needin’ help?” Lalla recalled wondering as it pulled aside their 28-foot pirogue.
A short, sinewy man jumped on board, shouting in Spanish and waving a pistol.
“Then we knowin’,” Lalla said.
“They be pirates.”

Fisherman Jimmy Lalla, 36, moves a bike at his home near the water in Woodland, Trinidad.
He and the first mate on their fishing vessel fled a pirate attack by jumping overboard; the boat’s captain was kidnapped and is still missing.

Centuries after Blackbeard’s cannons fell silent and the Jolly Roger came down from rum ports across the Caribbean, the region is confronting a new and less romanticized era of pirates.

Political and economic crises are exploding from Venezuela to Nicaragua to Haiti, sparking anarchy and criminality.
As the rule of law breaks down, certain spots in the Caribbean, experts say, are becoming more dangerous than they’ve been in years.

Often, observers say, the acts of villainy appear to be happening with the complicity or direct involvement of corrupt officials — particularly in the waters off collapsing Venezuela.
“It’s criminal chaos, a free-for-all, along the Venezuelan coast,” said Jeremy McDermott, co-director of Insight Crime, a nonprofit organization that studies organized crime in Latin America and the Caribbean.

A raincoated fisherman walks through the mist on the beach in Trinidad as a boat makes its way to shore.

A Trinidadian coast guard vessel patrols the Gulf of Paria between Trinidad and the east coast of Venezuela.
Fishermen work off the coast of Trinidad.
The region has experienced a surge in piracy.
Crew members inspect the haul.
Theirs is legal; other boats plying the same waters engage in smuggling.

A raincoated fisherman walks through the mist on the beach in Trinidad as a boat makes its way to shore.
Comprehensive data on piracy is largely lacking for Latin America and the Caribbean.
But a two-year study by the nonprofit Oceans Beyond Piracy recorded 71 major incidents in the region in 2017 — including robberies of merchant vessels and attacks on yachts — up 163 percent from the previous year.
The vast majority happened in Caribbean waters.

 Caribbean waters with the GeoGarage platform (NGA charts)

The incidents range from glorified muggings on the high seas to barbaric attacks worthy of 17th-century pirates.
In April, for instance, masked men boarded four Guyanese fishing boats floating 30 miles off the coast of the South American nation.
The crews, according to survivors’ accounts, were doused with hot oil, hacked with machetes and thrown overboard, then their boats were stolen.
Of the 20 victims, five survived; the rest died or were left unaccounted for.

David Granger, the president of Guyana, decried the attack as a “massacre.”
Guyanese authorities have suggested that it could have been linked to gang violence in neighboring Suriname.
“They said they would take the boat and that everyone should jump overboard,” survivor Deonarine Goberdhan, 47, told Reuters.
After being beaten and thrown in the sea, he said, “I tried to keep my head above water so I could get air. I drank a lot of salt water. I looked to the stars and moon. I just hoped and prayed.”

 A Trinidadian coast guard vessel patrols the Gulf of Paria between Trinidad and the est coast of Venezuela

There have been reports of piracy over the past 18 months near Honduras, Nicaragua, Haiti and St.
Lucia.
But nowhere has the surge been more notable, analysts say, than off the coast of Venezuela.

An economic crisis in the South American country has sent inflation soaring toward 1 million percent, making food and medicine scarce.
Malnutrition is spreading; disease is rampant; water and power grids are failing from a lack of trained staff and spare parts.
Police and military are abandoning their posts as their paychecks become nearly worthless.
Under the socialist government of President Nicolás Maduro, repression and corruption have increased. 

The conditions are compelling some Venezuelans to take desperate action.
One Venezuelan port official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity to address official corruption, said that Venezuelan coast guard officers have been boarding anchored vessels and demanding money and food.
He said commercial ships, in response, are increasingly anchoring farther off the coast, and turning off their motors and lights to avoid being seen at night.

 Fishermen work off the coast of Trinidad.
The region has experienced a surge in piracy.

It doesn’t always work.
In July, one vessel from the local company Conferry, which offers freight services to nearby Venezuelan islands, was raided by three men brandishing knives and guns near the port of Guanta.
Four crew members were left tied up for hours while food and electronics were stolen.

In January in Puerto La Cruz, also on the northeast coast, seven armed burglars boarded an anchored tanker.
They tied up the vessel’s guard on duty, then robbed its stores.
Similar incidents have been reported in the months since, according to the Commercial Crime Services division of the Paris-based International Chamber of Commerce.

 Trinidad & Tobago with the GeoGarage platform (UKHO chart)

Trinidad and Tobago, an island nation of 1.4 million people within eyeshot of the Venezuelan coast, has long worried about crime emanating from its neighbor.
Since the 1990s, drug smugglers have shipped marijuana and Colombian cocaine from Venezuelan ports to Trinidad, and from there to other Caribbean countries and beyond.

Trafficking and piracy, locals say, have recently been expanding and becoming more violent.
Five Trinidadian fishermen in the southern port of Cedros, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, citing fear for their safety, said in interviews that they had witnessed a burst of Venezuelan boats arriving in recent months smuggling military-issue guns as well as drugs, women and exotic animals.
“Sometimes, those Venezuelans are willing to trade the guns and animals for food,” said one 41-year-old fisherman.

Another fisherman said he was held for hours in January by Spanish-speaking pirates while his brother was contacted to pay a $500 ransom.
A Trinidadian coast guard vessel was dispatched to patrol the waters this year after several high-profile incidents of smuggling and piracy.
But locals say the criminals simply wait until the patrol passes, and then they act.
Trinidadian authorities did not respond to repeated requests for comment.

Fishermen watch a boat, which they suspect is being used by smugglers, speed toward Trinidad from Venezuela.

Opposition politicians, however, are decrying a surge in piracy.
They also say that the flow of automatic weapons from Venezuela — some of which appear to be coming from military stores — is contributing to a swelling homicide rate in Trinidad.
“This reminds me of how the problems started off the coast of eastern Africa,” said Roodal Moonilal, a lawmaker from the opposition United National Congress party, referring to a sharp rise in ship hijackings off the coast of lawless Somalia several years ago.
“What we’re seeing — the piracy, the smuggling — it’s the result of Venezuela’s political and economic collapse.”

For those who make their living plying the warm waters of the Caribbean, piracy is a new source of fear.
These days, locals are fishing closer to shore, and sometimes at night, to avoid the risk of attacks.

On the April afternoon when the Asheena was boarded, Lalla said, he was terrified.
“The man talkin’ Spanish, he point the gun at me, then he point at the water. I be knowin’. He be wantin’ that I jump,” he said.
So he leaped overboard.
The first mate — Narendra Sankar, 22 — followed him moments later.
The men were swimming toward an offshore oil rig when Sankar suffered a cramp.
“I had already reached the rig, so I had to be jumpin’ back in, to help him,” Lalla said.
“He was goin’ to be drownin’.”

They watched as the pirates seized their vessel, outfitted with two expensive outboard motors.
Their captain, Andell Plummer, was still aboard.
The two men were rescued from the water by a passing fishing boat.
When they reported the attack to authorities, Lalla said, they were told: “We have no boat to go after them; we can do nothing.”

There has been no word of Plummer since, the men say.
Trinidad’s Ministry of National Security did not respond to a request for comment about his case.
“My boy, they take him!” said the captain’s father, Deoraj Balsingh, 58, standing by a muddy Trinidadian dock surrounded by boats.
“We don’t know,” Balsingh said.
“We don’t know if he livin’ or if he dead.”

Deoraj Balsingh, 58, still awaits word on the fate of his kidnapped son, captain Andell Plummer.

Links :

Thursday, August 16, 2018

Models may help reduce bycatch from longline fishing



Fourteen environmental variables are combined in a model that predicts monthly locations of longline fishing fleets.
The model should help prevent accidental bycatch of sharks, seabirds and other species.
Credit: Duke Univ. Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab

From Phys

Hundreds of thousands of sharks, sea birds and other marine species are accidentally killed each year after they become snagged or entangled in longline fishing gear.

New models developed by a Duke University-led team may help reduce this threat by giving regulatory agencies a powerful new tool to predict the month-by-month movements of longline fishing fleets on the high seas.
The predictions should help determine where and when the boats will enter waters where by-catch risks are greatest.

"By comparing our models with data showing where by-catch species are likely to be each month, ship captains, national agencies and regional fisheries management organizations can pinpoint potential hotspots they may want to temporarily avoid or place off-limits," said Guillermo Ortuño Crespo, a doctoral candidate in the Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab at Duke's Nicholas School of the Environment.
"This represents a movement away from a reactive approach to fisheries management—where we only know about problems as or after they occur—to a more proactive approach that helps us stay one step ahead of the game," he said.

The average coefficient of variation of predicted high seas fishing suitability for 2015 and 2016.
Tropical latitudes show, on average, more predictive stability throughout the study period, whereas temperate and subpolar waters show higher degrees of variability of suitable habitat.
Gray areas around coastlines depict EEZs excluded from this study.
Data are from GFW.

Ortuño Crespo and his colleagues describe their new models in a peer-reviewed paper August 8 in Science Advances.

To devise the models, they collaborated with Global Fishing Watch to collect geospatial information from individual boats' automatic identification system (AIS) signals.
AIS data shows the movements and distribution of longline fishing fleets operating in the high seas in 2015 and 2016.

Then they statistically correlated each ship's fishing efforts to 14 environmental variables—such as sea surface temperatures or distance to the nearest seamount—that influence a region's seasonal suitability as a habitat for species targeted by longliners.
This allowed them to create highly accurate models that predict where the fishing fleets will be each month of the year.

The new models track data for fleets from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, China and Spain, which accounts for most of the longline fishing currently taking place in the open ocean beyond national jurisdictions.
Future models could include fleets from other nations and offer expanded functionality that will allow regulatory agencies to view the data within a global context or break it down by individual nation, region or fleet.

"If we can provide this level of information, it becomes a highly practical management tool for the agencies charged with managing fishing on the high seas," Ortuño Crespo said.

In longline fishing, hundreds or even thousands of individual fishing lines with baited hooks are hung off a main line that can extend for miles across the sea.
Fishermen typically use longline gear to catch swordfish, tuna and other commercially valuable fish that live in the upper depths of the open sea, but the bait also attracts non-targeted marine species such as sharks and sea birds, which get snagged on the hooks or entangled in the lines.

"Blue sharks, mako sharks, oceanic whitetip sharks, thresher sharks and silky sharks are among the species most frequently killed by longlines, and some of them are listed as species of concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species," Ortuño Crespo said.
"The industry has made great strides in developing safer gear, but hundreds of thousands of animals are still being killed each year."

Getting the new models into the hands of regulators, industry leaders and policymakers is critical, and time is of the essence, said Patrick N. Halpin, professor of marine geospatial ecology at Duke and a co-author of the study
"Climate change and fishing pressures are the two main drivers of ecological impacts in the open ocean, and there is a possibility that neither of them will be part of United Nations negotiations this September on protecting marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdictions," Halpin said.
"Some countries, especially those that do a lot of deep-sea fishing, do not want to include fisheries in the discussions.
We hope our findings will help change their attitudes."

Links :

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

Giraglia 2018 : the spirit of yachting

The 66th edition of the Rolex Giraglia takes place from 8 – 16 June and marks the 20th anniversary of Rolex's involvement with the event.
Organized by the Yacht Club Italiano, with the support of the Société Nautique de Saint-Tropez, this internationally renowned competition regularly attracts an impressive fleet of over 250 yachts.
A major fixture in the Mediterranean yachting season, the Rolex Giraglia offers both inshore and offshore racing serving up the perfect blend of camaraderie and competition.

The Rolex Giraglia is a true festival of sailing.
Saint-Tropez provides an elegant and exclusive setting for the start of this offshore yacht race, which regularly draws an impressively global fleet of over 250 crews.
Following arrival races, the fleet gathers in Saint-Tropez for three days of inshore competition before embarking on a 241-nautical mile offshore race to Genoa, Italy via the Giraglia rock, an imposing outcrop of historic navigational importance off Corsica.
The Rolex Giraglia is more than a yacht race, it is also a symbol of friendship between countries, sailors and yacht clubs. 

Links :

Tuesday, August 14, 2018

Open to change: how Open Data will save our oceans

all pictures from 

From Nor Shipping by Kent Erik Kristiansen

We can choose.
Share our maritime data, prosper, create value and safeguard our oceans.
Or keep it to ourselves and slowly stagnate, both commercially and environmentally.
Steven Adler says it’s time to act.

It’s difficult to eat when you’re discussing a subject you burn for.
Steven Adler, a global pioneer in the field of data strategy and governance, has been trying to get a bite of his burger for the last ten minutes.
The problem is, every time there’s a break in conversation a new thought fires from his cerebral cortex, reaching his mouth before the rapidly cooling food does.
“Look, people you don’t know will have insights you can’t imagine,” he says, as a slither of lettuce slides out from the edge of the bun hovering in his hands.
“There are seven billion people on the planet and I guarantee that some of them will have ideas for your data you haven’t come up with, to do things you won’t be able to do.”

Open data is the subject.
Or why, more precisely, the maritime industry must, and he stresses must, follow a wider business and societal trend and share the huge volume of data it collects.


Value creation

“The value of any data is directly proportional to its utility – if you want to increase the value of data you have to increase its use,” he stresses.
“One maritime organization collecting data for its own purposes can never maximize the value of that data.
For one thing they can only compare it to their own data and, even if you’re a company with a lot of ships, you only have a tiny proportion of the 80,000 vessels in the world fleet.
That means your observations and insights will be very narrow.


“What’s more, one business on its own could never anticipate all the uses their data could be put to if made available to others.
It’s also a waste of money for vessels to collect the same data as one another.
Different ships sailing the same routes, but owned by different companies, could add geo temporal and geo spatial value and create rich new data that could help us all understand how our oceans are changing over time.
When everyone shares open data, everyone wins.”

Any shipowners or managers reading this may now be thinking ‘but why should we share our data with the competition, that’s hardly smart?’
But hold on for a second, we’ll get to that.



Leading the way

Adler knows what he’s talking about.
A veteran of his field, he spent 21 years at IBM, ending up as Chief Data Strategist, patenting the IBM Enterprise Privacy Architecture and helping lead and communicate the global giant’s overall corporate vision.
He is recognized as a prime mover in the establishment of the fields of Internet Insurance, Data Governance, Data Strategy and People Data, and in 2015 was appointed to the US Commerce Department Data Advisory Council (CDAC), the nation’s first Federal Advisory Council focused on how data could improve economic growth.
He has also, amongst other roles and achievements, been the Chief Data Officer for the City of Medellin in Columbia, helping it create and implement an open data strategy. It’s hardly surprising lunch is taking second place.


Empowering change

“Look at what the open data movement has achieved in the civic environment,” he says.
“This is a simple idea embraced by most major cities around the world – making their data open relating to issues such as transportation routes, public services, arrest rates and so on, so it’s available to anyone that wants to access and use it.
Suddenly we see it being leveraged by third parties, for example by software vendors that utilise it to create important new services, jobs, innovations and wealth.


“How? Well, real estate applications that use census data to provide prospective homebuyers with information on neighbourhoods.
Or restaurant guides that use food hygiene inspection data as part of recommendation criteria.
Or civic planning groups that open up planning applications to the community for opinions and expert input on new developments and their impacts and advantages for local areas.
Look at your phone – how many of your apps use openly available data to provide you with valuable services?
“This is a good thing. A very good thing. Societies benefit and businesses benefit in ways that those that originally gave access to the data could never possibly have imagined.”


He notes such examples are public sector entities providing Open Data funded by taxpayers and, in doing so, empowering business to grow.
“Now we need the private sector to step up and publish open data about the oceans in real time… and we need this urgently.
If we don’t act, and get a lot of things right in the next 10 years, we face catastrophic biodiversity loss in our oceans.”



Priceless potential

Adler stresses that, with the proliferation of sensors and digital technology now available, more data has been collected on the oceans in the past two years than in the entire history of the planet prior to that.
But if it’s not shared then it’s value will never be realized.
On the subject of privacy he is quick to clarify that maritime and ocean businesses will not, and should not, be asked to share either business critical or personal data.
“We don’t want that, we don’t need that,” he states.
“We want the information that they, that you, are collecting on our world.”
Adler sees ships as platforms just waiting to be utilised to help us to manage, and essentially save, our fragile ocean environments.
He believes the data they collect can be pooled to unlock unique insights into the state of the ocean, the trends in its development, and the ways in which we can exploit resources while actually safeguarding and supporting its well-being.
“The data collected could be priceless,” he opines.
“Not only can we continue to refine energy efficiency and performance, but we can gain in-depth knowledge of temperature variations, tidal flows, plastic pollution, weather pattern development, deoxygenation, new marine life… the list goes on.
“We can use existing and new technology to help manage fish stocks, create safer and more efficient vessel movements, position wind and tidal farms, open up new tourism possibilities, develop smart aquaculture, protect urban coastal zones… to develop ocean activity in not only a sensible, responsible manner, but in an informed, intelligent way, with concrete data to enable better decision making.
The value of the data is only limited by our imagination.
And if there’s potentially seven billion imaginations that can access it, then that value is…”
He stops.
Takes a bite of the burger and, smiling, ruminates for a few tantalising seconds.
“…Almost unlimited.”

Leaders from across the political, economic, environmental and risk sectors gathered in Bermuda for the first Ocean Risk Summit on May 08-10, 2018.
The event presented high-level speakers providing expert data, analysis and innovative tools to help participants identify potential exposures to ocean risk and prepare to tackle its broad-ranging consequences.
Together, attendees at the summit helped to generate new and dynamic solutions.
 
Inevitable shift

Adler, who stepped down from IBM last year, and now enjoys a number of advisory and consultant roles, is speaking after an invitation from Nor-Shipping to participate in its ground-breaking Opening Oceans Conference (OOC).
This focused on developing new, lucrative and sustainable business opportunities within the ocean environment.
His message to the audience, and to everyone attending Nor-Shipping next year (taking place in Oslo and Lillestrøm, Norway, from 04 to 07 June 2019), as well as the wider maritime industry, is simple: “Share. And the sooner the better.”


“Within the next three years the maritime and ocean industries will establish a culture of sharing data,” he predicts.
“It’s inevitable. The benefits it will bring for sustainability, both environmentally and commercially, are simply too great to ignore. We have the infrastructure to do it today – it’s called the cloud – and the curiosity, talent and determination of countless millions of minds to extract real value from it.
So, what are waiting for?
Let’s unleash the power of your data.
“Share!”

Links :

Monday, August 13, 2018

Scientists reveal submarine canyon on edge of Ireland's continental shelf

The Porcupine Bank Canyon showing several hundred metre-high cliffs.
Credit: University College Cork

From Phys

A group of scientists from across the globe have revealed the stunning details of a submarine canyon on the edge of the country's continental shelf, after mapping an area twice the size of Malta.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-08-scientists-reveal-submarine-canyon-edge.html#jCp
A group of scientists from across the globe have revealed the stunning details of a submarine canyon on the edge of the country's continental shelf, after mapping an area twice the size of Malta.


The group will return tomorrow morning (August 10) after a research expedition onboard the RV Celtic Explorer with Holland I ROV, led by University College Cork (UCC) in Ireland, mapping 1800 km2 of seabed to image the upper canyon over a fortnight.
The find is significant in understanding more about how submarine canyon helps transport carbon to the deep ocean.
Although there is excess CO2 in the atmosphere (the greenhouse effect), the ocean is absorbing this at the surface, and canyons pump this into the deep ocean where it cannot get back into the atmosphere.

 Map showing proposed survey locations for the CoCoHaCa2 survey

Porcupine Bank with the GeoGarage platform (UKHO map)

INFOMAR is a seabed mapping project
run jointly by the Marine Institute and the Geological Survey of Ireland

The expedition, led by Dr. Aaron Lim of UCC's School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences (BEES), utilises the Marine Institute's Holland 1 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and state-of-the-art mapping technologies to reveal the nature of the canyon.
"This is a vast submarine canyon system, with near-vertical 700m cliff in places and going as deep as 3000m. You could stack 10 Eiffel towers on top of each other in there," said Dr. Lim (BEES-UCC), "So far from land this canyon is a natural laboratory from which we feel the pulse of the changing Atlantic."

Cold water corals on the rim of the Porcupine Bank Canyon.
Credit: University College Cork According to Dr. Lim, this discovery coupled with recent findings on the Irish-Atlantic margin shows the advances in both Ireland's marine technology and scientific workforce.

"Ireland is world-class, and for a small country we punch above our weight."
The Porcupine Bank Canyon is the westernmost submarine canyon on the contiguous Irish margin 320 km west of Dingle and exits onto the abyssal plain at 4000m water depth.
The upper canyon is full of cold-water corals forming reefs and mounds which create a rim on the lip of the canyon 30m tall and 28 km long.
The coral reefs on the rim of the canyon eventually break off and slide down into the canyon where they form an accumulation of coral rubble deeper within the canyon.
The ROV ventured deeper into the canyon and found significant build-ups of coral debris that have fallen from hundreds of meters above.

A flag planted at the Porcupine Bank Canyon.
Credit: University College Cork This is all about transporting carbon stored cold water corals into the deep.

The corals get their carbon from dead plankton raining down from the ocean surface so ultimately from our atmosphere," said Professor Andy Wheeler, School of BEES, UCC, and the Irish Centre for Research in Applied Geosciences (iCRAG).
"Increasing CO2 concentrations in our atmosphere are causing our extreme weather; oceans absorb this CO2 and canyons are a rapid route for pumping it into the deep ocean where it is safely stored away."
The new detailed maps show lobes of sediment debris and the scars from submarine slides as the canyon walls collapse.
There is also exposure of old crustal bedrock and incised channels in the canyon floor carved by sediment avalanches.

What the Porcupine Bank Canyon would look like with the sea drained out with steep cliffed edges and cold-water coral mounds in the top.
Credit: University College Cork

"We took cores with the ROV, and the sediments reveal that although the canyon is quiet now, periodically it is a violent place where the seabed gets ripped up and eroded," added Professor Wheeler.
The new mapping data shows a rim feature along the lip of the canyon at approximately 600m water depth.
"When we sent down the ROV, we saw that this rim is made of a profusion of cold water corals, which appears to extend for miles along the edge of the canyon," said Professor Luis Conti, University of Sao Paulo.

Links :

Sunday, August 12, 2018

The first sea chart of the New Netherlands, 1656

 Title: Pascaarte [pas caarte] van Nieu Nederlandt uytgegeven door Arnold Colom t’ Amsterdam… 
- 1656 -
An early Dutch sea chart of New Netherland with Virginia and New England by Arnold Colom, depicting in detail the Atlantic coast of North America, approximately from today’s Gloucester, Massachusetts to the north, to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to the southwest.
The main provinces are outlined in a different color and marked as Virginia, Nieu Nederlant, and Nieu Engelant. Early English settlements in New England are clearly identified as Salem, Baston (Boston), Pleymuyt (Plymouth), etc.
New Netherland included territories of today’s states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Connecticut and Rhode Island.

New Netherland 'Novi Belgoo Novaeqe Angliae Nec Non PartisOVI BELGII NOVAEQUE ANGLIAE NEC NON PARTIS VIRGINIAE TABULA'
Vervaardigd in ca. 1684.This map of the current New England was published by Nicolaes Visscher II (1649-1702).
Visscher copied first a map by Jan Janssonius (1588-1664) from 1651 and added a view of New Amsterdam, the current Manhattan.
The map is very accurate: each European town which existed at the time has been represented.

 Today with NOAA nautical raster chart in the GeoGarage platform

Friday, August 10, 2018

The unpleasant reason men navigate better than women


Sea Hero Quest Game - The first scientific results

From BBC by

Men are better at navigating than women, according to a massive study, but there's not much for men to be proud about.
Scientists at University College London say the difference has more to do with discrimination and unequal opportunities than any innate ability.
The findings come from research into a test for dementia.
But it has also given an unprecedented insight into people's navigational ability all around the world.

The experiment is actually a computer game, Sea Hero Quest, that has had more than four million players.
It's a nautical adventure to save an old sailor's lost memories and with a touch of a smartphone screen, you chart a course round desert islands and icy oceans.

Introducing Sea Hero Quest, a mobile game created to change the future of dementia research.

The game anonymously records the player's sense of direction and navigational ability.
One clear picture, published in the journal Current Biology, was that men were better at navigating than women.
But why?

Prof Hugo Spiers thinks he has found the answer by looking at data from the World Economic Forum's Gender Gap Index - which studies equality in areas from education to health and jobs to politics.
He told the BBC: "We don't think the effects we see are innate.
"So countries where there is high equality between men and women, the difference between men and women is very small on our spatial navigation test.
"But when there's high inequality the difference between men and women is much bigger. And that suggests the culture people are living in has an effect on their cognitive abilities."


Sea Hero Quest has produced a raft of other findings.
  • Denmark, Finland and Norway have the world's best navigational skills - possibly down to their "Viking blood"
  • Sense of direction is in constant decline after you emerge from your teenage years
  • People in wealthier countries also tend to be the best navigators
The deeper the colour, the stronger the country's navigational ability
The popularity of the game has turned it into the world's biggest dementia research experiment.
Being lost or disoriented is one of the first signs of the disease.
The next step in the research is to see if catching sudden declines in navigational ability could be used to test for dementia.

Tim Parry, the director of Alzheimer's Research UK, said: "The data from Sea Hero Quest is providing an unparalleled benchmark for how human navigation varies and changes across age, location and other factors.
"This really is only the beginning of what we might learn about navigation from this powerful analysis."

This project was funded by Deutsche Telekom and the game was designed by Glitchers.

Links :

Thursday, August 9, 2018

The Bermuda Triangle: A breeding ground for rogue waves or a pit of human mistakes?

Also sinisterly known as the Devil's Triangle, the Bermuda Triangle consists of a region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean, and is defined by points in Bermuda, Florida and Puerto Rico.
It stretches across less than a thousand miles on any one side.

From LiveSciences by Yasemin Saplakoglu

…and then they just disappeared.

The Bermuda Triangle, a mysterious stretch of ocean between Bermuda, Puerto Rico and the tip of Florida, has allegedly, throughout the years, swallowed a horde of unsuspecting ships, planes and people.

Charles Berlitz's 1974 book kicked off a craze lasting into the 1980's
Sadly our planet’s mysteries have largely been explained
thanks to the proliferation of TV channels with midweek schedules to fill.

Many tales have been told about the vanishings.
Aliens captured the humans for research.
Some geomagnetic storm confused the pilots' navigational systems.
The lost continent of Atlantis sucked the vessels into its grasp with a mysterious, unidentified force.

Better yet, strong vortexes slurped the victims straight into another dimension.
But scientists throughout the years have pointed out that there are plausible explanations for the vanishings, and that the risks of traveling through the Bermuda Triangle are no different than other spots in the ocean.

The SS Marine Sulphur Queen, a converted T2 tanker ship carrying molten sulfur (sulphur is the British spelling of sulfur) and 39 crew members, disappeared near the southern coast of Florida.
It was last heard from on Feb. 4, 1963, when it sent a routine radio message.
When it failed to make further communication, search crews were dispatched to locate it.
After more than two weeks of looking, the rescue team only found a few shards of debris and life preservers, shown above.
It's a bit unsettling that the Sulphur Queen vanished into "the Devil's Triangle," since folklore says that the king of the underworld reeks of sulfur — and what's that creepy shadow in the photo's background, anyway?

New life has been breathed into one such theory: that the vessels could have easily been overcome by giant and unexpected rogue waves.
This hypothesis isn't new, but a group of U.K. scientists recently discussed the evidence for freak waves and other theories (including the role of human error) in a three-episode documentary series "The Bermuda Triangle Enigma," produced by the BBC for Channel 5.

This photo shows the U.S.S. Cyclops (AC-4), a massive collier ship that was lost at sea in 1918.
After leaving Barbados for Baltimore, Md., on March 4, the vessel vanished without a trace, taking 306 crew members and passengers with it.
It remains the single largest loss of life in U.S. Naval history that was not the result of combat.

"There is no doubt this area is prone to rogue waves," Simon Boxall, an oceanographer at the University of Southampton and one of the scientists on the team, told Live Science.
They are possible "anywhere you get multiple storms coming together."

The USS Nereus (AC-10) was one of four Proteus-class colliers built for the U.S. Navy during World War I. The craft was named after the mythological Greek sea god Nereus, protector of sailors.
The USS Nereus was lost at sea sometime after Dec. 10, 1941, as it made its way to Portland, Maine, from St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands.
It disappeared with a crew of 61 along the same route as its sister-ship, the USS Proteus, had vanished from the previous month.
The USS Proteus (AC-9) was a Navy collier that had been converted into a merchant ship.
It was never heard from again after Nov. 23, 1941, when it left port from St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands, bound for an East Coast port in the United States.
The approximately 540-foot-long (165 meters) ship was carrying 58 men and a cargo of bauxite ore to be made into aluminum.
Two of Proteus's three sister-ships, the Cyclops and Nereus, also vanished without a trace in the Bermuda Triangle. 

Rogue waves are steep and tall, like "walls of water," and they often hit unexpectedly, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
The tip of South Africa, for example, is very prone to them, where waves from storms in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Southern Ocean all come together at once, Boxall said.
Indeed, there were similar disappearances of big container vessels and tankers off the tip of South Africa throughout the years, he said.

This also holds true for the Bermuda Triangle, where storms can come from all directions, like Mexico, the equator and farther east in the Atlantic.
If each wave can reach over 30 feet (10 meters) tall, occasionally they can coincide at the right moment and create a rogue, or "freak," wave that can be over 100 feet (30 m) high.

Engineers at the University of Southampton in England built some ship models, including one of the USS Cyclops, a vessel that vanished in the Bermuda Triangle in 1918 with over 300 people on board.

They simulated rogue waves in a wave tank and found that, indeed, ships can sink quickly if hit by them.
The bigger the ship, the bigger the difficulty staying afloat, they found.
Small ships can get swamped by them, but sometimes they can ride the wave if they hit it bow-on, Boxall said.
But big ships — designed to be supported in the front by the top of one wave and in the back by the top of another — snap in two.
Gas bubbles, magnetic anomalies…humans being humans?

People often talk about weird magnetic anomalies over the Bermuda Triangle, Boxall said.
"There aren't any," he said.
There are magnetic anomalies in the world that have to do with the Earth's mantle moving beneath the crust, but the nearest one is about 1,000 miles [1,600 km] south, off the coast of Brazil — a long way away from the Bermuda Triangle, he said.

Another theory has to do with pockets of explosive methane gas that could, due to some disturbance, float up toward the water's surface and cause the water to be less dense than the ship, leading the ship to sink.
However, no experiment to date has been able to prove that this is possible, Boxall said.

"Theoretically, it could be happening, but there are lots of places in the world where this can happen," not just in the Bermuda Triangle, Boxall said.
Instead, he thinks the most common cause for the mysterious vanishings is human error.


The Bermuda Triangle's eerie reputation began on Dec. 5, 1945, when flight 19, a squadron of five U.S. Navy torpedo bombers, vanished into thin air during a routine training exercise.
The planes were fully equipped and had been thoroughly checked before they departed from the Naval Air Station Fort Lauderdale in Florida.
What made the disappearance even more mysterious is that it occurred during peacetime, making it less likely that they were shot down.
This photo shows a U.S. Navy TBF Grumman Avenger flight, similar to the Flight 19 planes.
Before losing radio contact off the coast of southern Florida, Flight 19's flight leader was reportedly heard saying: "Everything looks strange, even the ocean," and "We are entering white water, nothing seems right."
The aircrafts and 14 crew members were never found, despite a lengthy investigation by the government. In fact, a search-and-rescue aircraft with 13 men onboard was dispatched to locate the missing planes, but that aircraft and its passengers also inexplicably disappeared.
And thus, the Bermuda Triangle's spooky reputation was solidified.

The famous disappearance of Flight 19 — five U.S. Navy aircraft that vanished during a training mission in 1945 — that led one journalist in 1964 to give the area its current name, probably occurred because the crew got lost and ran out of fuel, Boxall said.

About a third of all registered and privately owned ocean craft in the U.S. are in the states and islands of the Bermuda Triangle area, he said.
And according to the most recent 2016 figures from the Coast Guard, 82 percent of incidents in this area that year involved people who had no formal training or experience of being at sea, he added.

"So, you take a third of the entire boating population of the U.S., you dump them in the Bermuda Triangle," and what you get is mysterious vanishings, Boxall said.
You don't need any licensing or specific equipment like radios or navigation maps to take a boat to sea, he added.

"A number of times, working at sea, we've come across people who are navigating using a road map, who are relying on their mobile phones as their means of communication, discovering … you get 30 miles offshore [and] you lose the signal," Boxall said.

Retrieving sunken planes and ships from the Bermuda Triangle is especially difficult because it is home to the Puerto Rico Trench, which reaches depths of about 30,100 feet (9,200 meters) and is the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Crafts that sink to such low points are seldom seen again.
This underwater photo shows an unidentified Caribbean shipwreck discovered by NOAA oceanography researchers on April 1, 2011.

In addition, "environmental considerations could explain many, if not most, of the disappearances," NOAA wrote on its website.
"The ocean has always been a mysterious place to humans, and when foul weather or poor navigation is involved, it can be a very deadly place."

NOAA also says the area could be prone to accidents because of the Gulf Stream, a strong and fast ocean current that can cause "rapid, sometimes violent, changes in weather," and shallow waters around the Caribbean islands that can prove fatal for ships.

"You can extend the Bermuda Triangle to ever bigger areas…what you'll find is that the Bermuda Triangle covers the entire globe," Boxall said.
"Rogue waves can hit lots of different places, methane bubbles can hit lots of different places, and wherever you get a high concentration of amateurs without any experience you're going to get a high concentration of mysterious disappearances."

But, you know, maybe it is aliens capturing unsuspecting humans using vortexes that lead straight into their laboratories that they've set up in the lost city of Atlantis.

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Wednesday, August 8, 2018

Antarctic seas host a surprising mix of lifeforms – and now we can map them

In contrast to common perceptions, Antarctic seafloor communities are highly diverse.
This image shows a deep East Antarctic reef with plenty of corals, sponges and brittlestars.
Can you spot the octopus?
Australian Antarctic Division

From The Conversation by Jan Jansen

What sort of life do you associate with Antarctica?
Penguins? Seals? Whales?

Actually, life in Antarctic waters is much broader than this, and surprisingly diverse.
Hidden under the cover of sea-ice for most of the year, and living in cold water near the seafloor, are thousands of unique and colourful species.


An underwater robot has captured a rare glimpse beneath the Antarctic sea ice, revealing a thriving, colourful world filled with coconut-shaped sponges, dandelion-like worms, pink encrusting algae and spidery starfish.
The footage was recorded on a camera attached to a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) deployed by Australian Antarctic Division scientists under the sea ice at O’Brien Bay, near Casey research station in East Antarctica. 

Our research has generated new techniques to map where these species live, and predict how this might change in the future.

Biodiversity is nature’s most valuable resource, and mapping how it is distributed is a crucial step in conserving life and ecosystems in Antarctica.

 Casey lies on the northern side of the Bailey Peninsula overlooking Vincennes Bay on the Budd Coast of Wilkes Land in the Australian Antarctic Territory, a territory claimed by Australia
NGA chart in the GeoGarage platform 

 The Casey Station, commonly called Casey, is one of three permanent bases and research outposts in Antarctica managed by the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD).
AHS chart in the GeoGarage platform

Surprises on the seafloor

The ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is an unusual place.
Here, water temperatures reach below freezing-point, and the ocean is covered in ice for most of the year.
While commonly known for its massive icebergs and iconic penguins, Antarctica’s best-kept secret lies on the seafloor far below the ocean surface.
In this remote and isolated environment, a unique and diverse community of animals has evolved, half of which aren’t found anywhere else on the planet.

These solitary sea squirts stand up to half a metre tall at 220m depth in the dark, cold waters of East-Antarctica.
Images such as this one were taken with cameras towed behind the Australian Icebreaker Aurora Australis.
Australian Antarctic Division

Colourful corals and sponges cover the seafloor, where rocks provide hard substrate for attachment.
These creatures filter the water for microscopic algae that sink from the ocean surface during the highly productive summer season between December and March.

In turn, these habitat-forming animals provide the structure for all sorts of mobile animals, such as featherstars, seastars, crustaceans, sea spiders and giant isopods (marine equivalents of “slaters” or “woodlice”).

The Antarctic seafloor is also home to a unique group of fish that have evolved proteins to stop their blood from freezing.

Most Antarctic fish have evolved ‘anti-freeze blood’ allowing them to survive in water temperature below zero degrees C.Australian Antarctic Division

Mapping biodiversity is hard

Biodiversity is a term that describes the variety of all life forms on Earth.
The unprecedented rate of biodiversity loss is one of the biggest challenges of our time.
And despite its remoteness, Antarctica’s biodiversity is not protected from human impact through climate change, pollution and fisheries.

Although scientists have broadly known about Antarctica’s unique marine biodiversity for some time, we still lack knowledge of where each species lives and where important hotspots of biodiversity are located.
This is an issue because it hinders us from understanding how the ecosystem functions – and makes it hard to assess potential threats.

Why don’t we know more about the distribution of Antarctic marine species?
Primarily, because sampling at the seafloor a few thousand metres below the surface is difficult and expensive, and the Antarctic continental shelf is vast and remote.
It usually takes the Australian Icebreaker Aurora Australis ten days to reach the icy continent.

A selection of the diverse and colourful species found on the Antarctic seafloor.
Huw Griffiths/British Antarctic Survey

To make the most of the sparse and patchy biological data that we do have, in our research we take advantage of the fact that species usually have a set of preferred environmental conditions.
We use the species’ relationship with their environment to build statistical models that predict where species are most likely to occur.

This allows us to map their distribution in places where we have no biological samples and only environmental data.
Critically, until now important environmental factors that influence the distribution of seafloor species have been missing.

Using predictions to make a map

In a recent study, we were able to predictively map how much food from the ocean-surface was available for consumption by corals, sponges and other suspension feeders at the seafloor.

The science behind linking food-particles from the ocean surface to the biodiversity of Antarctic seafloor fauna.
Satellites (1) can detect the amount of algae at the ocean-surface.
Algae-production is particularly high in ice-free areas (2) compared to under the sea-ice (3).
Algae sink from the surface (4) and reach the seafloor.
Where ocean-currents are high (5), many corals feed from the suspended particles.
In areas with slow currents (6), particles settle onto the seafloor and feed deposit-feeding animals such as seacucumbers.
Jansen et al. (2018), Nature Ecology & Evolution 2, 71-80.

Although biological samples are still scarce, this allowed us to map the distribution of seafloor biodiversity in a region in East Antarctica with high accuracy.

Further, estimates of how and where the supply of food increased after the tip of a massive glacier broke off and changed ocean conditions in the region allowed us to predict where abundances of habitat forming fauna such as corals and sponges will increase in the future.

Antarctica is one of the few regions where the total biomass of seafloor animals is likely to increase in the future.
Retreating ice-shelves increase the amount of suitable habitat available and allow more food to reach the seafloor.

Colourful and diverse communities are also found living in shallow waters.
Australian Antarctic Division

For the first time in history, we now have the information, computational power and research capacity to map the distribution of life on the entire continental shelf around Antarctica, identify previously unknown hotspots of biodiversity, and assess how the unique biodiversity of the Antarctic will change into the future.

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Tuesday, August 7, 2018

If drones ruled the waves : Avast, me hearties

courtesy of Maritime Robotics

From The Economist by

It is a bright morning in the eastern Mediterranean, and a small robotic watercraft operated by Greenpeace, an environmental group, is quietly approaching two fishing boats about 160 miles north of Egypt’s coast.
Unseen by the boats’ captains and crew, the bobbing drone takes a few pictures, and its on-board image-processing systems swiftly determine that illegal drift nets have been deployed.
The fishermen hope to catch endangered bluefin tuna, but such nets can also ensnare dolphins and sea turtles.
The drone fires off a message via satellite and continues to shadow the fishing boats from a distance.
Five hours later a hastily dispatched cutter arrives, and officers from Egypt’s coast guard seize both boats and arrest their crews.
The drone, meanwhile, dips beneath the surface and continues on its monitoring mission.

That, at least, is how things could play out in the early 2030s, if proponents of aquatic drones have their way.
As the cost of building and operating such vehicles drops, satellite communications systems provide cheaper and faster connectivity, and machine intelligence improves, drones could provide a powerful means of policing illegal activities that take place, unseen, at sea.
Powered by wave action, wind power or solar panels, drones could operate for months or even years at a time, scanning large areas in swarms, monitoring environmental conditions and alerting human overseers when something looks amiss.
If drones ruled the waves, fisheries would be more sustainable, pollution would be reduced and human trafficking would be harder to get away with.
Even if drones can monitor only a small fraction of the ocean’s surface, their presence could be a powerful deterrent.

Fishing is just one area where aquatic drones could spot illegal activity.
Today around one-fifth of the annual global catch, worth around $23.5bn, is taken illegally, as fishermen exceed quotas, fish in protected areas or use banned methods such as drift nets or dynamite fishing.
The dumping of pollutants could be detected, too.
By one estimate, vessels intentionally discharge some 276,000 tonnes of oily gunk into the sea each year, nearly half as much as the Deepwater Horizon disaster spewed into the Gulf of Mexico.
Drones could use sensors to sample seawater for traces of improperly dumped fuel sludge, solvents and dirty engine oil, or deploy small, flying cameras to take aerial pictures of tell-tale oil slicks.
In coastal waters, flying “sniffer” drones operated by port authorities could fly through the exhaust plumes of large ships to check that they are not exceeding emissions limits.
(A Danish firm called Explicit uses manned helicopters to sample the exhaust from ships in the North Sea; about 6% break the rules.)


Monitoring air pollution from ships using helicopters and UAVsProject Sense introduces a cost efficient and reliable system for monitoring emissions from ships during cruise using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and helicopters in combination with AIS data and advanced data analysis to sample plumes and detect non-compliant behaviour enabling effective enforcement of applicable emission regulations.

Drones could also tackle human trafficking, and the use of forced labour at sea, by spotting suspicious activity, such as boats that stay in a particular area but avoid visiting port for months at a time.
Tens of thousands of men from Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam are thought to have been enslaved on fishing vessels that, to prevent escapes, offload their catch and take on supplies from other vessels far out at sea.

Enthusiasm for drone-based monitoring is not driven simply by improvements in drone technology.
It is also a consequence of the high cost of traditional means of enforcement.
Operating a US Coast Guard cutter, for example, typically costs $1,500-3,000 per hour.
And its visibility means nabbing offenders in the act is akin “to catching lightning in a bottle”, says Mark Young, a former head of enforcement for the Pacific Ocean.
Manned aircraft cost more than $10,000 per flight hour.
With today’s technology, says Mr Young, not even America can afford to fully patrol its “exclusive economic zone”, the waters within 200 miles of its shores.
Even less attention is paid to the nearly two-thirds of the ocean that is beyond any country’s jurisdiction.

Satellites are already helping in some areas.
Requiring ships to carry transponders that report their position, for example, can reveal vessels that suspiciously avoid ports or dawdle in marine protected areas.
But not all ships are required to carry transponders, and some captains switch them off.
Roughly half of fishing boats off the east and west coasts of Africa do not transmit their location, Greenpeace says.
These “dark fleet” vessels can be spotted in satellite pictures, but monitoring them in this way is problematic too.
For one thing, a high-resolution photograph of a square region, 10km (six miles) wide, costs about $2,700.
SkyTruth, an environmental watchdog based in West Virginia, receives some imagery free from satellite providers.
But shots must be requested and scheduled hours in advance.
On the last 25 occasions when he has made an educated guess as to where a suspect boat would be for a photo 12 hours later, SkyTruth’s most senior analyst, Bjorn Bergman, was right half the time.
(Sea Shepherd, a controversial American conservation group, has dispatched manned “direct action” ships to interfere with rogue Chinese fishing boats that Mr Bergman spotted in the southern Indian Ocean.)

Wave Gliders provide an essential link to connect seafloor to space nearly anywhere in the ocean.
See how the Wave Glider relays information from underwater back to shore.

One firm betting that sea drones are the way forward is Liquid Robotics, a subsidiary of Boeing, an aerospace giant.
Its autonomous, surfboard-sized Wave Gliders use underwater “wings” to harvest energy from the up-and-down motion of waves to travel at one to three knots, or a bit faster using an auxiliary propeller powered by solar panels.
The drones have operated for up to a year at a time and withstood hurricanes.
Onboard systems collect data on submarines, fishing boats and pollution, firing off alerts via satellite to authorities.
Being small and silent, Wave Gliders are unlikely to be spotted by seafarers up to no good, says Gary Gysin, the firm’s boss.
Liquid Robotics has sold more than 400 Wave Gliders, which cost $200,000 or more depending on which sensors are fitted, to outfits including the Australian and American navies and Japan’s coast guard.
Future models will serve as platforms for aerial drones.
The firm sees an emerging “internet of things for the ocean” that reports not just on lawlessness, but also on the health of marine life, water temperatures and currents, to help ships plot more fuel-efficient routes.


Maritime Robotics, a Norwegian firm, sells a much faster surface drone that zips along at a blistering 60 knots under diesel power.
Called Mariner, it can switch to battery propulsion to “sneak in” for a closer look at a suspect vessel, says Vegard Evjen Hovstein, the firm’s boss.

ASV Global (ASV), in partnership with Sonardyne International Ltd., the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) and SeeByte, have successfully delivered a long endurance, multi-vehicle, autonomous survey solution.

ASV Global, the British maker of a similarly fast surface drone, expects sales this year to top $22m, up from $15m in 2017.
Dan Hook, ASV’s head of business development, imagines selling models by 2030 that can dive underwater and stick up a camera and directional microphone on “a little snorkelling mast” to determine what a boat is up to.

Efforts to combat lawlessness at sea are also expected to benefit from spending on aquatic drones by navies.
Pradeep Chauhan, a former head of intelligence for India’s navy, reckons that in addition to their military duties, naval drones will perform the “spin-off” mission of detecting lawbreaking at sea.

Leidos demonstrates maritime autonomy

Nevin Carr of Leidos, a firm based in Virginia that designs submarine-hunting surface drones for the US Navy, in which he served as a rear admiral, says movement-analysis algorithms are being devised to determine what civilian vessels are doing.
That could include identifying ships that are smuggling drugs, weapons or humans, says Jayanath Colombage, a former commander of Sri Lanka’s navy during its fight against the Tamil Tigers, who partly funded their insurgency with such smuggling until being defeated in 2009.

Within ten years Greenpeace expects to have a fleet of aerial, surface and even underwater drones, with the latter seeking, among other things, signs of unlawful seabed mining, says John Murphy, the outfit’s head of drones.
Sea drones are still expensive, but costs will continue to drop because they share so many components with smartphones.
Fees for satellite-data services will also plummet, experts reckon, as new constellations of broadband satellites are launched.
And, says Bjarne Schultz of Norway’s Directorate of Fisheries, analysis of data on individual skippers’ behaviour, and the migratory patterns and market prices of fish, will allow drones to be sent to the areas where illegal activity is most likely to occur.
More broadly, both coast guards and environmental groups believe that maritime drones will make the dispatching of manned patrols far more targeted and cost-effective.
When it comes to preventing lawlessness at sea, swimming robots could be about to make a big splash.

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