Saturday, March 17, 2012

Living the dream surfing Byron Bay

Byron Bay - The Meeting Place 'Trailer' from Rest Your Eyes

Thousands of years ago the Arakwal Aboriginal people recognised the rich beauty of the Byron region.
They called it Cavanbah ‘The Meeting Place’.

Located on the most easterly point of Australia’s unique coastline, Byron Bay slowly developed into a small sleepy whaling town and has now grown into one of Australia’s biggest tourist destinations with millions of visitors each year.

>>> geolocalization with the Marine GeoGarage <<<

‘Byron Bay – The Meeting Place’ is a beautiful and visually appealing 40-minute documentary that explores the journey Byron Bay has taken, and introduces the characters that have enriched the region’s culture; locals, hippies, surfers, travelers, indigenous folk, and people from all walks of life.
These people are all united by one factor, their love for Byron Bay.



The smooth surfer Jorgelina "Lina" Reyero hails from a small town on the Atlantic Coast of Argentina.
She's spent the last 6 years wandering the world with her surfboard in tow and has wound up near the beautiful Wategos Beach, 1,5 km East of Byron Bay town.
She mounted a little camera to the nose of her log and captured the beauty of an empty surf.

Friday, March 16, 2012

Wishful Mapping: a half-baked Alaska, and the passage that wasn't there

General Map of the Discoveries of Admiral de Fonte (detail version)

From BigThink

What a strange concoction this late-18th-century French map is.
Centred on the northwestern part of America, it is an eclectic mix of geographic fact and fiction. Some continental contours are instantly recognisable, for instance the Kamchatka peninsula of Russia’s Far East, and Canada’s Baffin and Hudson Bays.
But what is that thing in between, and what has it done to Alaska?

Even the mapmaker must have known there was something wrong with what he wrought.
Notice the contrast between the mostly soft-edged shores of this half-baked Alaska (
And of the wholly fictional islands to its north, floating in the Mer de Tartarie and inhabited by the mysterious Ye-Oue, or Nation des Pygmies. In the Middle Ages, 'Tartary' described all lands east of the Urals, little known in the West.), and the jagged coastlines of the real parts of the world.

Most of it corresponds to what we now consider to be Siberia (i.e. the Asian part of Russia).
The lack of detail for the former is intentional, a sign of deference by the cartographer to his lack of knowledge.
Smooth shorelines are a code between the maker and reader of maps, to be read as: Not yet surveyed.

Then take a look at the larger shape of this alternate Alaska, to the islands populating its northern shores, and to that strange strait that connects Pacific to Atlantic, while skirting both aforementioned Canadian Bays.
They’re proof of a curious constant in mapping fake geographies: even though imaginary islands, rivers and coastlines are as random as real ones, they mostly look like the fantasies they are. There’s just something inimitable about the haphazard quality of truly natural geography.

This map appeared in the third volume of
Diderot’s Encyclop├ędie as Didier Robert de Vaugondy’s version, dated 1772, of an English map by Thomas Jefferys (1768).
It purports to be a
General Map of the Discoveries of Admiral de Fonte, representing the great probability of a North-West Passage.


This was a popular map, as the Northwest Passage was a popular fantasy - and a prime example of wishful mapping.
The Passage found its origins in the early days after discovery, when America was still seen by Europeans as an obstacle to trade with China and Japan, rather than as an opportunity in its own right.
Its existence was first mooted in 1539 by
Francisco de Ulloa, whose voyage up the Gulf of California (the narrow body of water separating Baja California from the rest of Mexico. This peculiarity also prolonged the belief that California was, in fact, an island.) led him to propose that it was one end of a strait that ran all the way across the North American continent to the St. Lawrence River, flowing from the Great Lakes through Qu├ębec into the Atlantic.

This waterway, all the more mythical for being non-existent, started showing up on maps from the mid-16th century onward as the Strait of Anian, probably after a Chinese province mentioned in
Marco Polo’s Travels (where Anian and Toloman were mentioned together in such a way as to suggest that the former was Japan, the latter Kamchatka).
For centuries, it was one of that handful of fictional drivers of real exploration.
Others include the
Seven Cities of Gold (in North America) and El Dorado (generally sought in South America).
These places were always sought after but never found, and thus instrumental in pushing back the boundaries of the unknown.

The
Strait of Anian (or, as the British preferred to call it, the Northwest Passage), was the elusive prize of Sir Francis Drake’s visit to the North America’s West Coast (or, as he called it, Nova Albion (‘New Britain’)) in 1579.
In 1592, the Greek-born, Spanish-employed
Juan de Fuca (that’s Ioannis Phokas to his dear old mum and dad, but also sometimes Apostolos Valerianos. It’s not exactly clear to whom) claimed to have found it.
In reality, he probably sailed up the strait between Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula that would later be named in his honour.

In 1609,
Henry Hudson ventured up the river that would be named after him, in search of the eastern terminus of the Northwest Passage.
He died a few years later, set adrift up north with his son and a few others by his mutineering crew into the icy bay that would later also bear his name.

An apocryphal Spanish tale has the Spanish admiral Bartolomeo de Fonte actually sail through the waterway in 1640, meeting a trading ship out of Boston that came in from the other side.

In the 1770s,
Captain Cook sailed up and down the coast of the Pacific Northwest, searching in vain for the entrance to the Strait of Anian.
His was the last, most vigorous attempt to do so.

The numerous, ever more northerly, and often deadly attempts to effect a Northwestern Passage were finally crowned with success in the early 20th century.
It took
Roald Amundsen three years (1903-1906) to make the crossing.

Too much ice and too shallow waters have always rendered this Northwest Passage uneconomical, but global warming might be changing that.
When the ice retreats far enough, the mythical waterway may yet become a reality, and finally connect the markets of the Old World with the fabled riches of Cathay and Xipangu (
China and Japan, if you were Marco Polo).

Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Looking for tsunami debris on West coast beaches


The powerful Japanese earthquake and resulting tsunami in March, 2011, washed untold tons of marine debris into the Pacific Ocean.
This video explains what NOAA is doing to help track the debris.


From NYTimes

John Anderson, a plumber by trade and a beachcomber by passion, has been trolling the shores of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State for more than three decades, and along the way has discovered almost every kind of flotsam one can imagine: toys, refrigerators, even the occasional message in a bottle.

But in recent months, Mr. Anderson has been making a new, and somewhat surprising, find: dozens of buoys marked with Japanese writing, set adrift, he believes, by last year’s catastrophic tsunami.
“That wave wiped out whole towns, I’m thinking just about anything could show up here,” said Mr. Anderson, 58, of Forks, Wash.
“I’ve heard people talking about floating safes full of Japanese money.”


A ship floats amongst scattered debris from the city in Wakuya

The tsunami — which struck after a massive offshore earthquake last March 11 — sent a wall of water sweeping across much of Japan’s eastern coastline and generated more than 20 million tons of debris, a jumbled mass of houses, cars, boats and belongings.

A house is pictured adrift in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Japan

And while it’s not clear what percentage of that wreckage was sucked back out to sea and what remains afloat, what is certain is that some of it is slowly making its way to American shores.


On the first anniversary of the Great Tohoku Earthquake, IPRC's Senior Scientist Nikolai Maximenko speaks about the current status of the tsunami debris that the earthquake generated.
(animated map of the projected path / tracker)

Computer models run by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and by researchers from the University of Hawaii predict that debris has moved eastward from the coast of Japan, driven by currents and wind.
The models predict that bits of detritus will begin washing up on the northwestern Hawaiian Islands this spring and along the western coast of the United States and Canada in early 2013.
“We don’t think there is a massive debris field out there,” said Nancy Wallace, director of NOAA’s Marine Debris Program.
“It will come up in little spurts here and there, a small trickle over years.”


Researchers think most of it will never reach shore and will instead get caught up and broken apart in the “great Pacific garbage patch” a swirling gyre of currents in the middle of the Pacific Ocean known to collect and recirculate floating garbage.

But beachcombers say the debris has already begun to reach land.
“I feel like Paul Revere running through town, saying ‘The British are coming!’ and no lights are coming on,” said a retired oceanographer, Curtis Ebbesmeyer.
“The tsunami debris is here, but no one is listening.”

Co-author of “Flotsametrics and the Floating World: How One Man’s Obsession With Runaway Sneakers and Rubber Ducks Revolutionized Ocean Science,” Mr. Ebbesmeyer, 69, also publishes Beachcombers’ Alert, a newsletter on all things flotsam and jetsam.
He counts some 10,000 people in the loose-knit network of serious beachcombers who read his newsletter and report their seashore findings to him.
Mr. Ebbesmeyer said he had received more than 400 documented sightings of large black plastic and white Styrofoam buoys found between Kodiak, Alaska, and Humboldt County, Calif.
Many of the buoys are marked with Japanese characters, including the names of oyster companies destroyed by the tsunami.
The buoys corroborate computer modeling by Mr. Ebbesmeyer and an oceanographer colleague that predicted debris would begin landing as early as last fall.

After the earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck Japan on March 11, 2011, tons of debris was swept into the Pacific.
Much of it is buoyant enough to float on the surface and can be moved around by small scale currents and large scale circulation patterns, such as the North Pacific Gyre.
The gyre, bounded by the Kuroshio Current on the west, California Current on the east, and Equatorial Current on the south tends to entrain debris in the center of the Pacific basin, creating what is commonly known as the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch."
Though the bulk of the marine debris remains in the ocean for years in an area north of Hawaii, individual pieces are continually washing up on the continental and island shores that border the basin.
NOAA's Marine Debris Program leads efforts to track and remove much of this existing trash, and is currently assessing the tsunami debris.
Scientists as NOAA's Earths System Research Laboratory developed the debris dispersion model, shown here.
Using five years of historical weather patterns, the model is used to approximate how debris will circulate across the basin.
(source NOAA)


Despite a rise in interest and reported sightings, officials have not confirmed that any of the items found along the West Coast originated in Japan.
“There is debris from Asia that comes to shore all the time, and it’s not necessary tsunami-related,” Ms. Wallace said.
Thus far, only two tsunami debris clusters have been confirmed, a wrecked Japanese fishing boat spotted by a Russian ship that was en route from Honolulu to Vladivostok, Russia, and another vessel located by the United States Coast Guard nearer to Japan.

Finding flotsam over some 5,000 miles of open ocean is not easy.
A month after the disaster, the debris was no longer visible in NOAA’s satellite images.
To assist in the search, officials have requested higher-resolution satellite images from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, which runs satellite-based mapping and monitoring for the Defense Department.

In recent months, NOAA reached out to the commercial shipping and fishing groups, asking boats to report any large debris sightings in the water.
NOAA has also called on a growing cadre of beachcombers to keep a lookout.
Since January, the number of e-mails NOAA has received reporting tsunami debris has increased threefold.
The Web page answering frequently asked questions about the tsunami gets more visitors than any of the program’s other pages.
NOAA also has a smartphone app for tracking debris found on beaches.

Whether tsunami-related or not, officials encourage beachgoers to pick up and properly dispose of any garbage they find.
“Radioactivity is extremely unlikely,” Ms. Wallace said, in part because the damaged Fukushima reactor did not begin leaking radioactive material until after the tsunami wave retreated.



Tom Baty, an avid fisherman and a retiree, spends up to three hours a day walking the beaches of Point Reyes National Seashore in California, where he picks up trash and sometimes tracks the location of plastic debris with a GPS device.
Mr. Baty, 54, regularly finds tidbits of junk marked with Japanese, Chinese and Korean characters, which makes him skeptical of the reports of tsunami debris up the West Coast.
Still, he said he was curiously awaiting the arrival of any floating evidence of that violent event. Mr. Baty is one of a ragtag army of unofficial seaside detectives who provide useful information on the patterns and whereabouts of ocean garbage to government officials and environmental groups.
“You walk up to something on the tide line,” he said, “and you scratch your head and think, ‘Now where did that come from?’ ”

Links :

Deep ocean floor can focus tsunami waves


credit NASA

From OurAmazingPlanet

As the waves of a tsunami approach a coastline, the topography of the seafloor near the coast plays a major role in determining how large those waves become and what places get hit harder than others.



For example, when the waves of the massive tsunami generated by last year's magnitude 9.0 Japan earthquake crossed the Pacific Ocean and reached the U.S. West Coast, they hit Crescent City, Calif., particularly hard because of two features of the seafloor off the coast: a piece of the ocean floor raised by tectonic activity that runs directly toward the city and the position and shape of the city's harbor.

Scientists had suspected that the same phenomenon might also take place in the deep ocean, where underwater mountains, called seamounts, chasms and even islands could deflect tsunami waves in some places and amplify them in others.

But measurements taken by satellites passing over the waves of last year's tsunami have confirmed that this happens, even at large distances from a quake's epicenter.

Researchers from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Ohio State University used satellite altimeters, which can measure sea level changes in very fine detail, to observe "merging tsunamis" — a phenomenon where smaller waves merge to form one bigger wave.
These waves can travel hundreds to thousands of miles without losing power.

The measurements showed that the March 2011 tsunami doubled in intensity when passing over rugged ocean ridges and around islands in the middle of the Pacific.

The team used a computer-based model to translate the measurements into images and animations, which shows how the waves can refract, bend and merge as they propagate.
The peaks of waves are colored red-brown, while depressions in sea surface appear blue-green. Grayscale outlines show the location of mid-ocean ridges, peaks and islands.

The measurements came from the Jason-1, Jason-2, and Envisat satellites, which each flew over the tsunami at a different location.
"It was a one in 10 million chance that we were able to observe this double wave with satellites," said Tony Song, principal investigator of the study and a scientist at JPL.
"Researchers have suspected for decades that such ‘merging tsunamis’ might have been responsible for the 1960 Chilean tsunami that killed about 200 people in Japan and Hawaii, but nobody had definitively observed a merging tsunami until now. It was like looking for a ghost," Song said. "Jason happened to be in the right place at the right time to capture the double wave."


Find out how the earthquake and tsunami of 2011 devastated Japan, in this OurAmazingPlanet infographic.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

A census of the ocean


Oceanographer Paul Snelgrove shares the results of a ten-year project with one goal: to take a census of all the life in the oceans.
He shares amazing photos of some of the surprising finds of the Census of Marine Life.

"We can only sense that in the deep and turbulent recesses of the sea are hidden mysteries far greater than any we have solved."
~ Rachel Carson, 1907-1964.

From TheGuardian

Oceans cover more than 70% of the surface of Earth, and contain a large portion of Earth's biodiversity, much of it still unknown.
Further, we know more about the surface of the Moon and Mars than we know about the floor of the world's oceans.
To remedy this knowledge deficit, the Census of Marine Life programme was initiated to catalogue and study the distribution, diversity and abundance of life in the oceans.
The census revealed how diverse, surprising, still vastly unknown, and tenacious life is in the oceans.


Screen grab

In this disturbing and fascinating video, oceanographer Paul Snelgrove shares some of the results of this ten-year project.
Professor Snelgrove, who compiled the data collected by this decade long marine census into a book, tells how shifting baselines have obscured our view of the loss that oceans have suffered as a result of human over-exploitation and shows us some of the amazing tools used to investigate oceanic habitats.
So far, more than 6,000 potential new species have been discovered, so Dr Snelgrove shares photographs of a few of his favourite newly discovered species.

Monday, March 12, 2012

First map of entire Titanic wreck site sheds new light on disaster

A collaboration between various partners, the 2010 expedition to the Titanic wreck site produced the first comprehensive map of the 15-square-mile debris field.
AUVs (autonomous underwater vehicles) and an ROV (remote operated vehicle) were used in conjunction to harness cutting-edge 2-D, 3-D and sonar technology.

From Discovery


The first comprehensive map of the Titanic wreck site has been created as researchers pieced together some 130,000 photos taken by underwater robots in the depths of the North Atlantic Ocean.

Resembling the moon's surface, the map shows debris and parts of the ship scattered across a 15 square-mile patch of ocean floor.

The detailed images might provide new clues about what happened after the "unsinkable" luxury liner hit an iceberg and sank on April 15, 1912, killing more than 1,500 of the 2,200 passengers and crew on board.

ANALYSIS: Did the Moon Conspire To Bring Down Titanic?

"If we are going to do our best to manage the Titanic wreck site as a testament to those that sailed on her, we need to understand the disposition and physical state of what's there," Titanic expedition co-leader David Gallo, director of special projects at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Falmouth, Mass., told Discovery News.

"In addition, we need to put Titanic in context of it is natural setting on the deep Atlantic seafloor," Gallo said.


Detail of the bow of the Titanic taken from a comprehensive map of the 3-by-5 mile debris field.
When Titanic sank in the early hours of April 15, 1912, its stern and bow sections separated.
The two pieces came to rest roughly 2,000 feet apart from one another on the ocean floor, 2.3 miles below the surface of the North Atlantic.

Credit:RMS Titanic Inc.

It's not the first time that the Titanic wreck site has been mapped.
The first attempts began soon after the doomed liner was discovered in 1985.
Explorers used photos taken with cameras aboard remotely controlled vehicles, which did not hazard too far from the bow and stern.

Therefore, all the maps are incomplete, covering only fragmented portions of the wreck area.
"As much as 40 percent of the wreck site has not been fully studied and documented, including multiple hull sections," RSM Titanic Inc, the legal custodian of the wreck, said on its website.

ANALYSIS: Steering Error Sank The Titanic, Says Author

The comprehensive survey map of the wreck site took place in the summer of 2010 as part of a project aimed at "virtually raising Titanic and preserving her legacy for all time."

The expedition to the wreck was led by RMS Titanic Inc., the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Waitt Institute of La Jolla, California.
They were joined by other groups, such as the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and cable TV's History channel.

During the expedition, torpedo-shaped AUVs (autonomous underwater vehicles) surveyed the entire search area with high-resolution side-scan sonar.
Pinpointed by the AUVs, the debris-rich sites were then explored by a ROV (remote operated vehicle) fitted with cameras.

The resulting 130,000 high resolution photos were pieced together on a computer to provide a detailed photomosaic map of Titanic and the surrounding sea floor.

"We are still processing some of the data but the elements of a 3D map are there," Gallo said.

"The images are staggering. There you are on the bottom of the ocean, transported to the sea floor. It's mindboggling; even veterans who have been to Titanic numerous times are slack-jawed," he added.

NEWS: Titanic Being Eaten by Destructive Bacteria

The wreck of the Titanic was found on Sept. 1, 1985 about 13 miles from the last position recorded before the ship sank on her maiden voyage from Southampton, England, to New York City and became a legend.

A deep canyon carved out of the ocean floor lies some 3.5 nautical miles west of the wreck site -- had the ship landed there, she might never have been found.

Because of the way the ship broke apart -- the stern and bow face opposite directions and are 1,970 feet apart from each other -- some areas in the 3-by-5-mile wreck field have a larger debris concentration.

Debris abound in the so-called "hell's kitchen," an area of the seabed scattered with broken china, pots, pans other cooking tools.
Another debris rich area is the "coal fields," which features a large quantity of the black combustible.
Indeed, the Titanic left England carrying 6,000 tons of coal .

According to RSM Titanic Inc, the "coal concentration in one area is believed to be due to both the coal's weight and how the ship broke apart."

ANALYSIS: Titanic's 'Unknown Child' Identified


Other features on the mapped wreck site include a pile of rubble identified as "deckhouse debris," a 60-foott long chunk of the side of the ship, five of the ship's huge boilers, and pieces of the ship's bottom.

"You really begin to understand how violently the ship tore itself apart when it went down and landed all over this enormous footprint on the bottom of the ocean," said David Alberg, Sanctuary superintendent for NOAA’s Monitor National Marine Sanctuary.

The layout of the wreck site, where the pieces ended and how they are arranged and oriented on the ground, might help solve some of the remaining mysteries on how the Titanic broke apart and sank.

For example, marks on the ocean floor to the west of the stern, with debris concentrated to the east, indicated that the stern rotated.

The new findings will be detailed during a two-hour History channel documentary on April 15, exactly 100 years after the Titanic settled at the bottom of the North Atlantic.

During the show, computer simulations will re-enact the sinking in reverse, bringing pieces of Titanic’s wreckage back to the surface and reassembling the ship in a virtual hangar.

Links :
  • TheTelegraph :Digital 'map' of the Titanic to be released for 100-year anniversary
  • History : First map of entire Titanic wreck site sheds new light on disaster

Sunday, March 11, 2012

What Fukushima accident did to the ocean


Fukushima guilty of world's worst sea contamination

From CNN

One year ago, a series of events began with an earthquake off the cost of Japan that culminated in the largest accidental release of radioactivity into the ocean in history.

We have to be careful and say "accidental" because in the late 1950s and early 1960s, 50 to 100 times more radioactivity was released worldwide as fallout from the intentional testing of nuclear weapons.

Wave on Fukushima (March 11, 2011)
photos
/ video
>>> geolocalization with the Marine GeoGarage <<<

The word "ocean" is also important, since Chernobyl in 1986 was hundreds of miles inland, so it had a smaller impact on the concentrations of radionuclides in the sea than was measured directly off Japan in 2011.
One year later, we have to ask, what do we know about Fukushima's impact on the ocean and levels of radioactive contaminants in water and fish?

In many ways we were fortunate that impacts were largely confined to the ocean.
Certainly, the Japanese people continue to feel devastating effects of so large a release within their country, and many people may never be able to return to their homes.
But in general the winds during the height of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were blowing offshore.
As a result, more than three-quarters of the radioactivity fell on the ocean.
This is important, as any that lands on soil remains in place, resulting in the potential for greater human exposure and increased chances of contamination to food supplies and property.

In the Pacific, however, the strong Kuroshio Current (similar to the Atlantic Gulf Stream) helped move any contamination quickly away from shore and diluted it by mixing it into deeper water.
This allowed us to report that by June 2011, even when we sampled within sight of the nuclear power plants, levels of cesium-137 and cesium-134 in the ocean, two primary products of nuclear fission, were elevated, but still below those considered of concern for exposure to humans.
They were also well below biological thresholds of concern to the small fish and plankton we sampled, even if these were consumed by humans.
Several other groups have now confirmed our findings about levels of radioactivity up to 400 miles offshore.

Other measurements show trends that are more worrisome.
Levels of radioactivity found in fish are not decreasing and there appear to be hot spots on the seafloor that are not well mapped.
There is also little agreement on exactly how much radioactivity was released or even whether the fires and explosions at the power plant resulted in more radioactive fallout to the ocean than did direct releases of radioactivity caused by dumping water on the reactors to keep them cool.

Japan is taking what some think of as a precautionary measure by lowering the limits of radioactive contaminants in drinking water and food supplies, including seafood, on April 1.
The new level for fish will be one-tenth of the acceptable level in the United States.
Will Japan's new limits build consumer confidence or raise fears and questions about why more fish are considered unsafe for consumption?
And why were fish caught last year considered safe, but now are not?

Despite the announcement in December that operators of the power plant had achieved cold shut down, we know they are still using tons of water to cool the reactors and that not all the water has been collected or treated.
As a result, the ground around the site is like a dirty sponge, saturated with contaminated water that is leaking into the ocean.

Marine sediments are also collecting radioactive contaminants, exposing bottom-dwelling fish, shellfish and other organisms on the sea floor to higher levels of contaminants than those in the waters above.
Little is known, however, about the level of contamination in the groundwater and on the seafloor and whether these will be a source of contaminants long after levels in the ocean have become diluted to the point that only the most sensitive instruments can detect them.
We do know that we can detect cesium at very dilute levels, well below those considered harmful.

Using these sensitive techniques we can track the Fukushima contaminants as ocean currents carry the peak releases across the Pacific where they are expected to reach the U.S. West Coast in 2013-2014 at levels that are much lower than we measured off Japan in 2011 and thus not of concern to human health.

Two weeks ago, we held the largest international gathering of marine scientists studying radioactive substances in the ocean originating from Fukushima.
Although we shared freely what each of us has learned in the last year, what we need today is also what we needed on March 11, 2011 — greater international coordination of long-term studies of the fate and consequences of the radiation.
We've done the initial assessments.
Now we need to begin answering the tougher questions, building public confidence in scientific studies by having multiple, independent groups at work, and ensuring we have the resources to build comprehensive, long-term studies.

As a scientist and a marine radiochemist, I (Ken Buesseler, Senior Scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution who has studied marine radioactivity since Chernobyl in 1986 and led an international research cruise off Japan in June 2011) am trained to provide answers about radioactivity in the ocean—how much is out there, where it is, and what its fate is likely to be in the future.
Today, we haven't gone very far beyond the first question, which was key on March 11, 2011, but hardly seems sufficient one year later.

Links :
  • TheGuardian : UK nuclear sites at risk of flooding, report shows
  • Discovery : Mix seawater, nuclear fuel: result is still an unknown